Flashcards in Unit Five Objectives Deck (73):
to live together
benefits, benefits, bacteria in human colon
benefits, neither benefits or harms; staphylococcus on skin
benefits; harms; tuberculosis bacteria in human lung
Discuss normal microbiota. Include their location, how they are acquired & their benefits to humans.
microbes that are on people that do not cause harm; lungs, kidneys, stomach, liver, spleen, blood stream, nervous system brain spinal cord, body fluid; microbial antagonism and competition, vitamin extraction from food, help develop immune system
Define microbial antagonism/competition. →
Microbial antagonism is a property that enables a microorganism to kill, injure or slow down the growth of a different microorganism. Bacterial flora benefits the microbial antagonism host. It does this by preventing overgrowth of harmful organisms.
Describe how normal microbiota members can turn into opportunistic pathogens. →
microbe enters new site in body; immune suppression (infection, stress, age, surgery), changes in microbiota reduce microbial antagonism or competition caused by broad spectrum antibiotic, hormonal changes, stress, diet, high exposure to pathogens
human, nonliving (food, soil), animal; site in nature where pathogens are maintained as a source of infection for new hosts
reservoirs of infection:
diseases spread from animal hosts to humans
soil (clostridium, fungal spores, worm eggs, protozoa, viruses, bacteria from feces and urine; meats, vegetables, milk)
bacterial (anthrax, bubonic plague, lyme disease, salmonellosis, typhus); viral (rabies, Hantavirus syndrome, yellow fever)
can remain asymptomatic and infective for years (aids, tb, syphilis)
List the portals of entry and exit that microorganisms use. →
portal of entry (eyes, mucous membranes, respiratory tract, placenta, breaks in host barriers) portals of exit (respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin/mucousal surfaces, placenta, blood)
Differentiate between an infection and disease (morbidity).
Infection (successful invasion of body; defenses hold pathogen in check; effect of microbes is injury or disruption to tissue) disease (mobidity; deviation from normal body functioning; mortality (death); immunity/repair damage)
Differentiate between signs vs. symptoms.
sign (seen or measured by observer; fever, objective, chest sounds, rash, redness, vomiting, diarrhea) symptoms (felt by patient; subjective, chills, pain, headache, sore throat, itching, abdominal cramps)
Describe how virulence is related to pathogenicity.
degree of pathogenicity
: adhesion disks
adhesions found on fimbriae, flagella, glycocalyces; attachment proteins
viral attachment proteins:
microbes can attach to other microbes
suckers and hooks
bacterial adhesions (include fimbriae, flagella, glycocalyces):
(act locally; dissolve structural chemicals in the body to maintain infection, invade further and avoid body defences) hyaluronidase (digests hyaluronic acid = acid glue) collagenase (digests collagen = major structural protein in extacellular matrix and connective tissue)
extracellular enzymes (examples):
Proteins or molecules expressed by some pathogen organisms in order to avoid the action of the immune system. Can be expressed by organisms such as, fungi, bacteria or virus.
Compare and contrast exotoxins (give examples) and endotoxin.
exotoxins (destroy host cells and interfere with metabolism; cytotoxins (cells in general), neurotoxins (nerve cells), enterotoxins (GI lining cells);botulism, tetanus, gas gangrene, diphtheria, cholera, plague, staphylococcal food poisoning). Endotoxin (Lipid A= part of lipopolysaccharide released form dead Gram (-); typhoid fever, tularemia, endotoxin shock, uti’s, meningitis)
Describe the five stages of infectious diseases and when a disease can be communicable.
likely to be communicable at all stages; (1. Incubation: no signs or symptoms) (2.prodromal: vague, general symptoms) (3.illness: most severe signs and symptoms) (4.decline: declining signs and symptoms) (5. Convalescence: no signs or symptoms)
direct contact, indirect contact, droplet
airborne (aerosols), waterborne, foodborne, bodily fluid
Differentiate between acute and chronic disease.
acute (symptoms develop rapidly and that runs its course quickly) chronic (usually mild symptoms that develop slowly and last a long time)
Differentiate between a communicable disease and a contagious disease.
(communicable: an infectious disease transmissible (as from person to person) by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual's discharges or by indirect means) contagious: (an infectious disease communicable by contact with one who has it, with a bodily discharge of such a patient, or with an object touched by such a patient or by bodily discharges)
: small region near portal of entry (boil, ringworm)
may spread to other sites but usually doesn’t (strep throat can cause rheumatic fever)
scratching chicken pox allows MRSA to enter bloodstream from skin
: widespread in many tissues spread by blood, nerves, cerebospinal fluid, lymph (leprosy, AIDS, meningitis)
: single site >1 agent (periodontitis, oral caries)
: study of occurrence, distrubtion, and spread of disease = effect of disease of populations
: study of cause of disease
: stable incidence in an area
=: more than one continent
: new cases in area or population during a time period
=: few scattered cases
doctors and hospitals much report to → (local and state agencies → CDC → WHO (world health organization) to possibly limit disease transmission
: greater frequency than normal
: total number of cases in area or population
Define and briefly discuss the significance of nosocomial infections.
acquired by patients or health care workers in health care settings; effective handwashing can reduce death by 50%; most common respiratory tract infection and e coli
Briefly describe the 3 lines of host defenses for innate and adaptive immunity.
innate (1st: secretions and activities: skin, mucous membranes, lacrimal apparatus, normal microbiota) (2nd: phagocytes, nonphagocytic NK eosinophil neutrophil killing, inflammation, fever; chemical defences: TLRs and NODs, compliment, interferons) adaptive (3rd line; naturally acquired, artificially acquired, lymphocytes antibodies)
tightly packed cells are continually replaced; excellent physical barrier that most microbes cant penetrate unless skin is burned, broken, or cut; dendritic cells: nonspecific APC phagocyte that eats microbes and plays role in adaptive immunity
skin (include dendritic cells),:
line all body cavities open to outside environment; respiratory, urinary , digestive, and reproductive tracts
lacrimal glands secrete tears that cleanse eyes and contains lysozyme
Discuss how normal microbiota help protect against disease. →
provide vitamins and microbial antagonism (change pH, eat nutrients, take space) and can boost immune response. (flows removes and cleanses) (contains iron binding proteins that sequester iron, making it unavailable for microbial use) (contains lysozyme; eliminates microorganisms)
(saliva: washes microbes from teeth, gums, tongue, and palate, contains lysozyme and antibacterial enzyme; stomach acid pH 2-3: digests and or inhobits microorganisms; gastorferritin: sequesters iron being absorbed, making it unavailable for microbial use; bile: ibhibitory to most microorgamisms; intestinal secretions: digests and or inhibits microorganisms; peristalsis: moves GI contects through tract constantly eliminating potential pathogens; defication and vomiting: eliminates microorganisms)
(urine: contains lysosome, urines acidity inhibits microorganisms, may wash microbes from ureters and urethra during urination)
contains iron binding proteins that sequester iron, making it unavailable for microbial use; cleanses uterus and vagina (vaginal secretions, menstrual flow, prostate secretion)
(blood flow: removes microorgansism from wounds; coagulation blood clotting: prevents entrance of many pathogens; transferrin: contains iron binding proteins that sequester iron, making it unavailable for microbial use)
: bone marrow cells produce blood cells and fragments
: has iron binding proteins to sequester it from microbes
: red blood cells
: broken up cells
basophils: (secrete inflammatory chemicals like histamine 0.5-1%) , eosinophils: (phagocyte; attach to parasitic helminthes and secrete toxins to weaken and or kill them; 2-4%, role in allergic response; kills gram – bacteria using mitochondria DNA + proteins to form barrier and kill) , neutrophils: (most numerous leukocyte; phagocyte; role in allergic response; secrete oxygen free radicals, hypochlorite and nitric oxide to kill nearby pathogens; can also commit suicide and release neutrophil extracellular traps NETS to surround and kill pathogens 60-70%)
lymphocytes: (lymphocytes; natural killer NK; secrete toxins to kill virally infected cells and tumor cells; B&T play role in adaptive immunity; 20-25%) , monocytes: (phagocytes; when leave blood mature into marcophages or dendritic cells; macrophages largest APC phagocytes; love in most tissues of body; dendritic cells are APC phagocytes; 3-8%),
Describe the six steps of phagocytosis and list the important phagocytic cells. Include the terms: Chemotactic factors, chemokines, opsonins, opsonization, phagosome, and phagolysosome
What are APC phagocytes? Give three examples.
eats” microbes & plays role in Adaptive Immunity; epidermis, hair follicles, and pores of glands
Define and describe the relationship between TLRs, NODs and PAMPs.
TLRs Integral membrane receptor proteins on phagocytes & mast cells that bind to PAMPs; NODS are like TLRs but are inside cell; Binding to PAMPs causes changes in gene expression
: Proteins secreted by virally infected monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes & fibroblasts to nonspecifically inhibit spread of viruses
Serum proteins that act as opsonins & chemotactic factors; Different pathways have different triggers
Define inflammation and list its stages.
General, nonspecific response to tissue damage from heat, chemicals, sunburn, abrasions, cuts, pathogens; cut penetrates, macrophages release histamine, ect., increased permeability chemicals and clotting proteins (fibrogen) to seep into damaged tissues but also results in swelling, pressure on nerve endings and pain, blood clot forms, phagocytes migrate to devour bacteria; pus (macrophages, neutrophilis, damaged tissue and microbes), undifferentiated stem cells repair the damages tissue. Blood clot is absorbed or falls off as scab.
: released by macrophages; causes increased diapedesis
; released by macrophages ; causes increased diapedesis
released by macrophages; causes increased diapedesis
released by macrophages; causes increased diapedesis
Why is inflammation beneficial to the body?
stem cells help repair tissue