Tuberculosis (680) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tuberculosis (680) Deck (10):
1

Pathogen Genus + Species:

Maycobacterium tuberculosis (TB)

2

Type of Microbe:

bacteria

3

Taxonomy:

Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Actinobacteria, Actinomycetales, Corynebacterineae, Mycobacteriaceae, Mycobacterium, M. tuberculosis

4

Description:

Tuberculosis, which many people associate strictly with lungs, can attack any organ in the body. This disease is very common among children and is spread via inhaled air droplets. After inhalation, macrophages of the lungs phagocytize pathogens and the bacterium is replicated within them. This cycle continues for a few weeks usually with no real symptoms. Then, the macrophages introduce antigen to T lymphocytes causing inflammation in the form of a tubercle. It is then enclosed with deposits from the body. This is the stage that makes it extremely hard for the body to fight it off because the bacteria is released and kills the tissue around it and it is too much for the body to fight. TB skin tests can tell if the person has been immunized or has had it before but only an X-ray can show a current infection

5

Habitat:

Tuberculosis lives within the human body but is transmitted by air droplets. It grows in body temperature and in pH from 6.2 to 4.5 but only grows in the body.

6

Temp/pH/Salt/Oxygen:

Tuberculosis pH ranges from 6.2 – 4.5 dependent upon where in the body the infection is. It also has a very high concentration of salt and is highly aerobic requiring very high levels of oxygen concentrations.

7

Biochemical Tests:

The TB skin test is very common for Tuberculosis even though it does not specificy if a positive test is because of a previous infection or a current one. The acid-fast staining procedure was developed because of its resistance to Gram stains.

8

2 Physical methods used to kill or inhibit outside the body

-Physical isolation from others to prevent spreading the disease
-The only other physical method for inhibition of tuberculosis outside of the body is for infected people not to cough near uninfected people.

9

2 Chemical methods used to kill or inhibit outside the body

-The use of antibiotic therapy including: isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin have the ability to treat tuberculosis over the course of many months
- Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), vaccine is used to prevent tuberculosis in people

10

Antimicrobial Agents used to treat or cure inside the body. (Mechanism of action of drug; route of drug administration; treatment or cure?; no treatment?; side effects)

- Antibiotic therapy is used for many moths to treat tuberculosis: isoniazid (INH), rifampin, and either ethambutol or streptomycin
-Some strains of tuberculosis are extensively drug-resistant and is recommended that people take a course of antimicrobial agents to prevent it.
-Side effects: weakened immune system, nausea or vomiting, loss of appetite, jaundice, dark urine, and fever.