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Flashcards in Ch.1 Deck (51):
1

diet

food and beverages that a person intakes
contains energy nutrients to mantn life, support growth and health

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NUTRITION

The study of how food nourishes body
influence health
digestion, conusme, metblz, and store nutrients
eating patterns and making recmd.

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Energy density

amount of energy (or calories) per gram of food. Lower energy density foods provide less energy per gram of food so you can eat more of them without consuming too many calories.

4

Calorie

term used to indicate Kcal

5

Kcalorie

The amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 kg H2O by 1 degree Cel.
=1000 cal

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Validity (science)

Reliable info ( used in scientific method and used proper experiments)

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Control group

Essential for comparison between tretd and untred indivdls.
people who are as much like the treated as possible but not been treated with the condition been testet

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control for other variables

Applied to avoid coincidentally influencing results

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Placebo

imitation treatment that has no effect on participants

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Causation

cb

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correlation

cb

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peer review

cb

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Blind studies

Subjects dont know if they are getting perturbation or placebo
participants dont know treatment receiving researchers know

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Double blinded studies

neither researcher nor participants know which group is been treated

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variable

cb

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Dietary Reference Intake

Aim to reduce/prevent risk of chronic disease- promote optimal health
-establish upper level for some nutr.
-Dietary standards for healthy people only

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The DRI's (Dietary Reference intakes)

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Adequate Intake (AI)
Tolerable upper intake level (UL)

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Estimated average Requirements (EAR)

Average daily intake level of a nutrient to meet the needs of half of the healthy people in a particular life stage or gender group

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Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

The average daily nutrient intake level that meets nutrient requirement of 97%-98% of healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group

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Adequate Intake (AI)

Recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed and experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people
-Used when RDA not available

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Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

Highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to most people
-Max daily ammnt to avoid toxicity

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DRI's related to energy

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

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Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

Average Dietary energy intake to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult
-Defined by age gender, weight, height and physical activity

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Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

Range of nutrient intakes from Macros that provide adequate intakes of essential nutrients while red. risk of chronic disease.
-Carbs 45-65% Daily
-Fat 20-35%
-Prtn-10-35%

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Risk Factors

cb

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Malnutrition

Nutrition is out of balance
getting too much or too little of particular nutrient or energy over a significant period of time

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undernutrition

Consuming too little energy or few nutrients overtime causes
-wight loss
-nutr deficiency
-nutr def deisease

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Over nutrition

Consuming too much energy or too much of a given ntr over time, causing
-Obesity
-heart disease
-nutr toxicity

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Anthropometric measurements

body weight, height
head circumference
limbs and waist circumference

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AMDR

daily intake
Carbs-45-65%
Fat 20-35%
Prtn-10-35%

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Epidemiological studies

examine patterns of disease in def. population
indicate relationship between factors, not cause and effect
-report prevalence and incidence of disease

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experimental studies

tightly controlled experiments done to determine its effect on a certain disease or health condition

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Invitro

microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context used for studies

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Invivo

whole, living organisms, usually animals, including humans, and plants as opposed to a partial or dead organism used for studies

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Scientific method

Make observation
Propose hypothesis
Experiment
collect and analyze data

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Sections of scientific paper

Abstract
Intro
Review of literature
Methodology
Results
Conclusion
References

37

Organic nutrients

Made up of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen
Lipids (fat soluble vit)
Carbs
prtns- also have nitrogen
vitms

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Inorganic Nutrients

Minerals
water

39

Energy molecules

Lipids
protein
carbs

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Lipids Energy Mol

9kcal X gram
Provide fat soluble vit and essential fatty acid
store large quant of energy
Triglycerides
phospholipids
sterols
Com of H2O,H, O

41

Protein energy mol

4kcal X gram
Provide energy if needed, not primary source of en.
support tissue growth repair and maintenance.
cont- Carbon,H,O, and N

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Carbs energy molecule

4Kcal X gram
Primary source of energy
Comp-Carbon, H, H2O

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5 risk factors of death

Obesity
stroke
type2 diavetes
heart disease
some forms of cancer

44

3L=

3= 3.17006 quarts
1= 1.05669 quarts

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1L=

1000 ml

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2ml=oz

2=.067628 oz
1=.033814 oz

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5g= mg

5=5000 mg
1=1000 mg

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1g= oz

1= .035274 oz

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3kg= g

3= 3000g
1= 1000g

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1 kg=Lb

1=2.2046 Lb

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5 ways to assess patients health and nut.

Diet history
health history
lab test
physical examination
anthropometric measures