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Flashcards in Ch.3 Deck (44):
1

esophagus

Muscular tube of Gi tract- connects back of mouth to stomach

2

Epiglottis

Tiny flap
acts as trapdoor covering entrance to food to trachea.
Closes trachea-opens esopagus

3

esophageal sphincters

Upper and lower esophageal sphincters

4

Upper esophageal sphincter

As trachea closes- muscle opens to allow passage of food

5

Gastro (Lower) esophageal sphincter

When food reaches end of esophagus
sphincter relaxes- allows food into stomach

6

small intestine

Largest part of GI tract
Most nutrient abs occurs
Duodenum
jejunum
Illeum

7

Duodenum

Sm intestine
first part of sm int.
pyloric sphincter- connects it to stomach

8

Jejunum

Sm intestine
Middle portion
most absorbtion takes place

9

Ileum

sm intestine
last portion
Ileocecal valve-connects it to large intestine

10

Large intestine

Tubelike structure that frames sm intestine on 3.5 half sides
Most h2o absorbed- feces formed
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
sigmoid colon

11

Enteric Nervous system

Autonomic nerves in wall of GI tract
secretes saliva (smell,taste, etc)
-controls peristalsis & segmentation

12

chyme

semifluid mass consisting of partially digested food water & gastric juices

13

bolus

mass of food that has been chewed and moisten in mouth

14

peristalsis

location-GI tract
waves squeezing& pushing, contraction that moves down food, chyme, and feces in one direction

15

Sphincter contractions

loc- GI tract
thigh rings of muscle that open when nerve signals indicate food is ready to next section

16

Amylaze

Breakdown carbs

17

Lipase

breakdown lipids

18

trypsin

breaks down prts

19

enzyme

sm chemicals (prtn) that act on other chemicals to speed up bodily process but are not changed during it

20

segmentation

circular and long. muscles squeeze before and after chyme to mix and move
tears chyme to smaller portions

21

sphincter contraction

circular muscles that open and close organs

22

potential of Hydrogen (pH)

-log(H+)
measures potential of subs. to release or take up H ions in sol.

23

saliva (pH)

pH of 6.5-7.5

24

Gastric juice (pH)

pH of 2
in stomach

25

Bile

emulsifies lipids
made in liver
stored in gallbladder

26

Pancreatic juice

Bicarbonate and digestive enzymes

27

enzymes

prtn. catalyst
breakdown things by hydrolysis

28

structure in small intestine that increase surf. area

circular folds
villi
micro villi

29

Mechanisms of abrobtion

Passive diffusion
facilitated diffusion
Active transport
endocytosis

30

Passive diffusion

nutrient cross into enterocyte with out use of carrier or prtn
lipids, water, Vit C

31

Facilitated diffusion

requires a carrier protein but no energy
fructose
by concentration gradient

32

Active transport

requires energy and a protein carrier to transport nutrients
glucose, aminos, some minerals

33

Endocytosis

Pinocytosis
active transport by which a small amount of intestinal contents is engulfed by the cell mem. into the cell
some prtn. and large part.

34

normal blood flow

Veins (lymphatic)
Heart
lungs
heart
arteries
capillaries

35

lymphatic system

absorbs fat

36

Lymph

travels through the lymphatic system
Lacteals
lymph nodes

37

Lacteals

pick up most lipids and fat soluble vitms

38

Lymph node

clusters of immune cells that filter microbes and other harmful agents

39

Large intestine a.k.a

bowel
colon

40

Large intestine function

store undigested material
absorb
-water
-short chain fatty acids
-electrolytes
-vit k and biotin

41

Probiotics

good bacterial strain break down food
aid in immune response

42

Prebiotics

foods that aid probiotics

43

Microvilli

increase surface area to absorb more nutrients

44

Homeostasis

stable equilibrium