CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

Pathoma > CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia Deck (169)
Loading flashcards...
61

Arsenic

Squamous cell carcinoma of skin, lung cancer, and angiosarcoma of liver. Arsenic is present in cigarette smoke.

62

Asbestos

Lung carcinoma and mesothelioma. Exposure to asbestos is more likely to lead to lung cancer than mesothelioma.

63

Cigarette smoke

Carcinoma of oropharynx, esophagus, lung, kidney, and bladder. Most common carcinogen worldwide; polycyclic hydrocarbons are particularly carcinogenic.

64

Nitrosamines

Stomach carcinoma, Found in smoked foods, responsible for high rate of stomach carcinoma in japan

65

Naplithylamine

Urothelial carcinoma of bladder. Derived from cigarette smoke

66

Vinyl chloride

Angiosarcoma of liver, occupational exposure; used to make polyvinyl chlurkle (PVC) for use in pipes

67

Nickel, chromium, beryllium, or silica

Lung carcinoma Occupational exposure

68

Oncogenic viruses

EBV, HHV-8, HBV and HCV, HTLV-1, High-risk HPV

69

EBV

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt lymphoma and CNS lymphoma in AIDS

70

HHV-8

Kaposi sarcoma

71

HBV and HCV

Hepatocellular carcinoma

72

HTLV-1

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

73

High-risk HPV (e.g. subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33)

Squamous cell carcinoma of vulva, vagina, anus, and cervix; adenocarcinoma of cervix

74

Ionizing radiation

(nuclear reactor accidents and radiotherapy) AML, CML and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Generates hydroxyl free radicals.

75

Non Ionizing (UVB sunlight is most common source)

Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma of skin

76

Non Ionizing radiation results in?

formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, which are normally excised by restriction endonuclease

77

Ras Receptor binding causes

GDP to be replaced with GTP, activating ras.

78

What does activated ras do?

sends growth signals to the nucleus

79

How is Ras deactivated?

inactivates itself by cleaving GTP to GDP; this is augmented by GTPase activating protein

80

Mutated ras

inhibits the activity of GTPase activating protein. This prolongs the activated state of ras, resulting in increased growth signals.

81

Cell cycle regulators mediate what?

progression through the cell cycle (e.g. cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase).

82

Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) do what?

form a complex which phosphorylates proteins that drive the cell through the cell cycle.

83

The cyclin D / CDK4 complex does what?

phosphorylates the retinoblastoma protein, which promotes progression through the G-S checkpoint

84

What do tumor supressor genes do?

Regulate cell growth decreasing (suppress) the risk of tumor formation;

85

What are some classic examples of tumor supressor genes?

p53 and Rb (retinoblastoma)

86

What does p53 regulate?

progression of the cell cycle from G to S phase

87

In response to DNA damage, what does p53 do?

slows the cell cycle and upregulales DNA repair enzymes.

88

PDGFB

Platelet-derived growth factor, overexpression, autocrine loop, astrocytoma

89

FRBB2 [HER2f neu]

Epidermal growth factor receptor, Amplification mechanism, Subset of breast carcinomas

90

RET

Neural growth factor receptor, Point mutation MEN 2A, MEN 2B and sporadic medullary carcinoma of thyroid