CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

Pathoma > CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH3 - Principles of Neoplasia Deck (169)
Loading flashcards...
151

What is the target cell type for the immunohistochemical stain of Neurofilament

Neurons

152

What is the target cell type for the immunohistochemical stain of PSA

Prostatic epil helium

153

What is the target cell type for the immunohistochemical stain of ER

Breast epithelium

154

What is the target cell type for the immunohistochemical stain of Thyroglobulin

thyroid follicular cells

155

What is the target cell type for the immunohistochemical stain of chromogranin?

neuroendocrine cells (small cell carcinoma of lung and carcinoid tumors)

156

What is the target cell type for the immunohistochemical stain of S-100?

Melanoma

157

What is used to characterize tumors that are difficult to classify on histology?

Immunohistochemistry

158

What are serum tumor markers?

Proteins released by tumor into serum (e.g PSA)

159

Serum tumor markers are useful for what?

screening, monitoring response to treatment, and monitoring recurrence

160

Elevated levels of serum tissue markers require what?

it requires tissue biopsy for diagnosis of carcinoma (e.g., biopsy of prostate with elevated PSA),

161

What is involved in the grading of cancer?

Microscopic assessment of differentiation (how much a cancer resembles the tissue in which it grows); takes into account architectural and nuclear features

162

What is low grade?

Well differentiated?resembles normal parent tissue

163

What is high grade?

poorly differentiated?does not resemble parent tissue

164

Cancer grading is important for what?

determining prognosis; well-differentiated cancers have better prognosis than poorly-differentiated cancers.

165

What is staging of cancer?

its an assessment of size and spread of a cancer,

166

How does the staging of cancer compare to the grading of cancer?

Key prognostic factor; more important than grading

167

When is the staging of cancer determined?

after final surgical resection of the tumor

168

What is the TNM staging system?

T?tumor (size and/or depth of invasion), N?spread to regional lymph nodes; second most important prognostic factor, M?metastasis; single most important prognostic factor

169

In the TNM staging system what is the most important prognostic factor?

Metastasis