Ch.4 Test- Federalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.4 Test- Federalism Deck (32):

Expressed powers

spelled out in words in the Constitution -27 powers - shared by the three branches of government


Implied powers

not spelled out in the Constitution, but reasonably "suggested"


Inherent powers

powers given to the national government because it represents a sovereign state in the world (inherited)


Concurrent powers

powers that are exercised by both the national and the state governments


Reserved powers

powers that are exercised (carried out) only by that states (outlined in the 10th Amendment) - Lots of them!


Supremacy clause

resolves conflicts between the two levels of government by setting up a "ladder of laws"


Supreme Court

acts as the "umpire" of the Supremacy Clause;
makes rulings and final decisions


Dual federalism

government powers strictly divided between the National government and the state governments (operate separate from each other - each sovereign from the other) - 1789-1930


Cooperative federalism

overlapping spheres of powers and operation across the 2 levels of government - 1930- Today


Revenue sharing

(1972-87) Program in which Congress shared federal taxes with states


Grants-in-aid programs

1800's it was grants of land to start up schools/colleges and build roads
Today it consists of grants of money for different programs such as:
a. Education
b. Mass transit
c. highway construction
d. Health care, etc.


Categorical grant

used for specific purpose/programs such as college tuition, school lunch, water treatment etc. - Strings attached!


Project grant

used for projects such as medical research (cancer/aids) - Private and public hospitals.


Block grant

used for large broad programs such as Welfare, Medicaid, and Infrastructure repair - fewer than usual strings attached.


Full Faith and credit clause

Must honor/enforce.

"Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of each other state"

Public acts = laws of a state

Records = documents such as birth certificates, marriage licenses, property deeds, etc.

Judicial Proceedings = the outcome of court actions (damages, wills, etc.)


Privileges and immunities clause

"No state can make unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those of another state"

Must allow them to buy, own, rent, or sell property, or marry within its borders, make contracts, etc.

Reasonable distinctions: (Exceptions)

can't vote
can't hold public office
can't practice law, medicine, teach, etc. (without state certification)
charge more for college tuition/hunting and fishing licenses, etc.



The legal process of surrendering an accused criminal by one State to the jurisdiction of another.
Prevents fugitives from escaping justice!


Enabling Act

Congress gives the state permission to set up a state constitution


Act of Admission

Congress agrees to grant statehood


Judicial Proceedings

the outcome of court actions (damages, wills, etc.)


Public Acts

laws of a state


Dual system of government

2 levels of government (National and State)


Interstate compact

agreements among 2 or more states/foreign states
more than 200
Deal with issues such as:

Conservation of resources (water, oil, wildlife, etc.)
Fighting forest fires
Combat water/air pollution
Harbor control
Motor vehicle safety
Cooperation between public universities


What is the "ladder of laws" in the Supremacy Clause?

1. United States Constitution
2. Acts of congress/National laws
3. State Constitutions
4. State Laws
5. City/Country laws (local)


What are the 2 interstate compacts that all 50 states agree upon?

1. Compact for the supervision of parolees and probationers
2. Compact on Juvenile Delinquents


What are the programs that Federal grants-in-aid monies go to?

1. Education
2. Mass transit
3. highway construction
4. Health care, etc.


What are the obligations the constitution places on the National government for the benefit of the states?

1. Guarantee states a republican form of government: (representitive)

2. Protects states against foreign invasion and domestic violence:
(attack from other countries/terrorism, and riots at home and natural disasters)

3. Respect territorial integrity of states:
(recognize states boundaries)


What are the programs (forms of federal aid) in which the National government helps/assists the states?

1. Federal grants-in-aid
2. Revenue Sharing
3. FBI assists state and local police
4. Trains the National Guard for the states
5. Takes a Census for the states (10 year population count


What are State aid programs in which the states help/assist the National government?

1. State and local police assist the FBI
2. States run all national elections
3. States run the naturalization/immigrant program


What are the ways that the states assist each other?

1. Interstate compacts
2. Full Faith and Credit
3. Extradition
4. Privileges and Immunities


What are some examples of reasonable distinctions that states can use against residents of another state under the Privileges and Immunities Clause?

1. can't vote
2. can't hold public office
3. can't practice law, medicine, teach, etc. (without state certification)
4. charge more for college tuition/hunting and fishing licenses, etc.


Delegated powers

(granted) power given to the national government by the Constitution (3 types)