Final Exam Flashcards Preview

Government > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (51):
1

Term

Two year time period in which Congress meets.

2

Session

Time period during which, each year, Congress conducts business.

3

Convene

To begin a new session of Congress.

4

Adjourn

Suspend, as a session of Congress

5

Recess

To suspend business until the next session.

6

Prorogue

Adjourn, as in a legislative session.

7

Sine Die

Neither house can adjourn without the consent of the other house.

8

Special Session

An extraordinary session of legislative body, called to deal with an emergency situation.

9

Apportion

Distribute, as in seats in a legislative body.

10

Reapportion

Redistribute, as in seats in a legislative body.

11

Off-year election

Congressional election that occurs between presidential election years.

12

Single-member district

Electoral district from which one person is chosen by the voters for each electoral office.

13

District

A voting block that represents about 700,000 people.

14

Gerrymander

The drawing up of district lines to the advantage of they party in power.

15

Incumbent

The current office holder.

16

Continuous body

Governing unit whose seats are never all up for election at the same time.

17

Constituency

The people they represent

18

Trustee

Lawmaker who votes based on his or her conscience and judgement; not the opinion of their constituent.

19

Partisan

Lawmaker who owes first allegiance to his/her political party and votes accordingly.

20

Politico

Lawmakers who attempt to balance the three basic elements; delegate, trustee, and partisan.

21

Common Law

English court decisions or customs

22

Statutes

An act of legislation/laws passed by Congress.

23

Jurisdiction

The authority of a court to hear or try a case

24

Civil Case

A dispute between parties involving money(lawsuit)

25

Criminal Case

A dispute between parties were a crime has been committed (murder, robbery, etc.)

26

Grand Jury

Large - 25

27

Petite Jury

Small- 12
Decides guilt or innocence of the accused

28

Magistrates

Issue warrants, set bail, select juries, deal w/ minor offenses.

29

Plaintiff

The person who files the complaint

30

Defendent

The person who the complaint is filed against

31

US District Court

Handle most of the Federal trial cases.

32

US Marshall

Policemen of the federal court system

33

US Court of Appeals

"Gatekeepers" of the Supreme Court (hear most of the appeals)

34

US Supreme Court

One court located in Washington D.C.

35

Speech and Debate Clause

It protects and representative and senators from suits for libel or slander arising from their speech in Congress

36

What are the eight roles of the President of the United States?

1. Chief of State: ceremonial head of the government (symbol)
2. Chief Executive: power to enforce the law (most powerful position in the world)
3. Chief Administration: CEO of the federal government (employs about 2.7 million people)
4. Chief Diplomat: architect of foreign policy (Nation's chief spokesperson to the world)
5. Commander in Chief: head of the armed forces
6. Chief Legislator: architect of public policy (ideas for laws)
7. Chief of Party: leader of his political party
8. Chief Citizen: the representative of all the people of the USA

37

What are the 6 powers of the President of the United States?

1. Appointed power: (Cabinet, Federal judges, etc)
2. Power to convene Congress: (State of the Union Address, special session)
3. Power to make Treaties: (agreement between two or more parties)
4. Veto power: (reject legislation)
5. Commander in Chief power: (head of the Armed Forces)
6. Pardoning power: (grant releases to criminals)

38

In what method is the president chosen?

1. popular vote (people)
2. Electoral college

39

What are the qualifications of a President?

1. Must be a "natural born citizen"
2. Must be at least 35 years old
3. Must have lived in the USA for at least 14 years.

40

What are the four divisions of the Executive Branch?

1. President
2. Vice President
3. The Cabinet
4. Independent Agencies and Regulatory Commissions

41

What are the four types of Jurisdiction?

1. Exclusive: cases that can only be heard in federal court
2. Concurrent: cases that can be heard in both federal and state courts
3. Original: The court in which a case is first heard
4. Appellate: The court that hears a case on appeal.

42

What are the three reasons why we have a bi-cameral Legislative Branch?

1. Historical reason: (British parliament - had 2 houses)
2. Practical reason: (settled conflict between small & large states)
3. Theoretical reason: (Check & balance each other)

43

What are the three unique powers of the House and Senate?

House:
1. Impeachment: (grand jury) see if enough evidence to go to trial.
2. Decide presidential elections: if no majority in the Electoral College
3. Power of the purse: all tax bills start here (spending)

Senate:
1. Trial for impeachment
2. Ratify treaties
3. Confirmation (approve) - Cabinet, judges, etc.

44

What are the 5 major roles of a congressmen.

1. Legislators - make laws
2. Representatives - voice of the people
3. Committee members - take up bills (proposed laws)
4. Servants to Constituents - help people
5. Politicians - A person who governs

45

Bicameral

Two houses

46

Delegate

Representatives; members of Congress who cast votes based on the wishes of their constituents.

47

Judicial Review

the power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a governmental action

48

Independent Agencies

additional agencies created by Congress located outside the Cabinet departments

49

District Attorney

Prosecuting attorney represents the state/federal government/plaintiff

50

Briefs

detailed written statements filed with the Court before oral arguments are presented

51

Opinions

The rationale for a decision