Ch7: Statistical Thinking and Application Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch7: Statistical Thinking and Application Deck (25)
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1

census

when the entire population is selected for the study

2

parameter

a measure calculated from the population

3

discrete data

data that contains only integers or counting numbers

4

continuous data

any value over a particular range is possible

5

levels of measurement (4)

1. nominal scale 2. ordinal scale 3. interval scale 4. ration scale

6

common causes

part of the system ex. poor design, measurement error, poor maintenance

7

special causes

unusual, not previously observed

8

stable system

a system governed only by common causes

9

problems created by variation (5)

1. increases unpredictability 2. reduces capacity utilization 3. contributes to a "bullwhip" effect 4. difficult to find root causes 5. difficult to detect potential problems early

10

statistical spread

variability in a sample or population

11

bell shaped, mean and standard deviation control?

mean: controls the center standard deviation: controls the spread

12

68-95-99.7 rule

68% of observations fall within 1 sd of the mean 95% fall within 2 99.7% fall within 3

13

standard distribution mean and sd

mean of 0 sd of 1

14

point estimate

single value serves as "best guess" of an unknown population parameter

15

confidence interval

the amount of uncertainty associated with a sample estimate of a population parameter

16

2 fundamental management mistakes

1. treating special causes and common causes 2. treating common causes as special causes

17

enumerative study

meant to explain the condition that exists with the existing population

18

analytic study

focused on improvement of the process

19

standard deviation

20

z score

21

finding a percentile

22

point estimate q

23

point estimate p

24

confidence interval

 

25

sample size with error