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Flashcards in Mid-Term Deck (27)
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1

Kaizen Model

continous improvement
- policy of constantly introducing small incremental changes in a business in order to improve quality and efficiency

2

SIPOC

suppliers-input-process-output-customers

3

FPY

first pass yield; output (good ones only) / input

4

RTY

rolled throughput yield; the probability that a process with more than one step will produce a defect free unit

5

Expected needs

also known as the dissatisfiers, because by themselves they cannot fully satisfy a customer; gets the supplier into the market

6

Normal needs (satisfiers)

keep a supplier in the market, know as wants or satisfiers

7

exciting needs

make a supplier a leader in the market

8

client satisfaction formula

= perceived value - expectations

9

perceived value formula

(results + emotional values + process satisfaction) / (price +personal inconvenience + personal uncertainty)

10

Churn

churn rate; number of customers who discontinue a service

11

loyalty

the client thinks that nobody else can give him the same service

12

Deming Chain reaction

improve quality
costs decrease
productivity increases
increase market share with better quality and lower prices
stay in business
provide jobs and more jobs

13

deming philosophy

continual improvements, reducing uncertainty and variability.

14

system of profound knowledge - deming

1. appreciation for a system
2. understanding variability
3. theory of knowledge
4. psychology

15

dr. juran

first to incorporate human aspect of quality
1. quality planning
2. quality control
3. quality improvement

16

mr. crosby

quality means conformance to requirements

17

ishikawa

influenced participative approaches involving all workers
- quality begins and ends with education
- quality control idea status is when inspection is no longer needed
- kill the root cause not the symptoms
- fishbone

18

Taguchi

considers design to be more important than the manufacturing process

19

PDCA

plan - do - check - act

20

cost of quality

any cost that the company would not have incurred if the quality of the product or service were perfect

21

COPQ formula

failures + appraisal + prevent action + white collar

22

six sigma

seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects and mining variability in manufacturing and business processes

23

Prevention costs (5)

1. quality planning
2. product design
3. process
4. training
5. information

24

Appraisal costs (4)

1. Inspection and testing
2. audit costs
3. test equipment costs
4. operator costs

25

Internal Failure costs (5)

1. scrap costs
2. rework costs
3.process failure
4. process downtime
5. price-downgrading

26

External Failure costs (5)

1. customer complaint
2. product return
3. warranty claims
4. product liability
5. lost sales

27

4 assumptions in the COPQ model

1. there is a root cause for each defect
2. defects are preventable
3. it is better to prevent than correct defects
4. inspection/testing can be reduced for capable processes