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Flashcards in Chapter 01 Deck (109):
1

7.What event inspired development of local police depts in the U.S. just seven years after being enacted, beginning with Boston Massachusetts.

The Metropolitan police act enacted by the British Parliament in 1829.

2

7. King Henry II established "common-law" in 12th century England which included a…

Judiciary that gave each county a King's judge.

3

7. King Henry II's Common Law: During this time, laws were enforced by…

Appointees of the Lords of each county.

4

7. Under common law, who meted out justice to the common folk?

The County judge, along with 12 local men.

5

7. Many laws we abide by in the United States today, such as those related to theft and homicide have their origin in...

12th century England.

6

7. New York City set up a formal local police department in...

1844, 15 yrs later.

7

7. Police administration has evolved in these important respects.

1. How they're organized.
2. Core strategy for providing value to community.

8

7. The London Metropolitan police was founded in 1829 through the...

British Parliament's enactment of the Metropolitan police act.

9

7. The first organization resembling the state police force and when it came into being.

The Texas Rangers in 1823.

10

8. As local, state, and fed law enforcement organizations evolved, so did the notion that police should have the right to (__ __).

(collective bargaining)

11

8. As early as 1893, the national chiefs of police union, forerunner of the international Association of Chiefs of police (IACP) was established largely through the efforts of...

Progressive Omaha, Nebraska, police chief Weber Seavey.

12

8. From the mid 19th century to about 1930, policing was about...

Community Service.

13

8. Originally more of a nonuniformed state militia.

The Texas rangers.

14

8. The development of national level law-enforcement organizations took a large step with the creation of the…

Bureau of investigation in 1908, subsequently renamed the Federal Bureau of investigation or FBI.

15

8. The first federal law enforcement agency in America had been created a century earlier in…

1789, when President George Washington appointed eight United States marshals.

16

9. According to these reports, many areas needed addressing, especially police brutality, through which police used mental and physical torture to elicit confessions from suspects.

14 Wickersham Commission reports.

17

9. National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission): The commissioners' recommendations:

Centralizing administration in a police jurisdiction, establishing higher personnel standards, and adopting a more professional approach to policing in general.

18

9. The Wickersham Commission ushered in a period when police authority derived...

More from law than from local politicians.

19

9. The Wickersham Commission ushered in a period where police activity shifted from...

Community service to crime control and prevention.

20

10. August Vollmer's protege; introduced a merit system for promotions and other innovations influential in modern policing.

O.W. Wilson.

21

10. Chief of Police in Berkeley, California from 1902-1932, considered the founder of modern policing.

August Vollmer.

22

10. During the 1960's, massive social unrest erupted throughout the U.S., which forced...

Police Executives to confront the fact that traditional policing (the professional "command and control" model) was not working well.

23

10. He rotated officer's patrol assignments to reduce the chance for corruption and insisted on higher salaries for officers to help agencies recruit higher-quality candidates.

O.W. Wilson.

24

10. Initiated the use of the police car as a patrol device and the two-way radio as a means for rapidly answering calls for service.

August Vollmer.

25

10. Introduced the polygraph as an investigative tool and helped establish college-level courses for police officers.

August Vollmer.

26

10. Vollmer also promoted the use of other forensic science technologies, such as...

Fingerprinting, crime laboratories, and moreover, strongly advocated professionalism in policing.

27

11. During the 60s many experts felt certain police alone could not control crime and social unrest stemmed from factors such as:

Social inequality, lack of jobs, and the deterioration of the family.

28

11. Flexibility and Transition: (1980-Present) Today, they must decide together what policing principles and strategies to incorporate into their mission.

Police agency executives.Elected political leaders.Community leaders.Citizens.

29

11. In addition to demonstrating greater flexibility with regard to strategy, the police have also entered a time of transition in terms of…

How they and others perceive their level of professionalism.

30

11. Principles and strategies: To prepare for the future, most agencies across the country mix...

Traditional policing with community and problem-oriented policing, some statistical policing, and strategic policing.

31

11. The stage was set for adopting new police strategies that emerged as follows:

(Community Oriented Policing) (Community Oriented Problem Solving Policing-COPS) (Statistics-Oriented Policing) (Intelligence-Led Policing) (Strategic Policing)

32

12. Behavior that can be considered ethical even though ethics itself is not concerned with it.

Obeying the law, following certain religious tenets, and conforming to societal standards of behavior.

33

12. A person becomes virtuous by…

Behaving ethically.

34

12. As a general rule ethics refers to…

What a person does.

35

12. As a general rule, virtue refers to…

Who a person is.

36

12. courage, generosity

virtue

37

12. Demonstrating virtues leads to moral behavior, which in turn…

Forms the foundation for ethics.

38

12. Ethics centers on demonstrating ...

Behavior that reflects specific virtues.

39

12. Ethics itself is not concerned with what?

Law, religion, or society.

40

12. Ethics, as an aspect of philosophy, originated in…

Ancient Greece.

41

12. Examples of moral excellence are known as…

Specific virtues.

42

12. modesty, discretion

virtue

43

12. More than most professions, policing presents it's members with…

Ethical dilemmas on a daily basis.

44

12. People who wish to do the right thing, to be a good person, and get along with others are expressing ...

The desire to behave in an ethical manner.

45

12. self-restraint, loyalty

virtue

46

12. Society everywhere require their members to behave in…

An ethically acceptable manner.

47

12. These leaders must demonstrate all these competencies while fulfilling the role of public safety officer.

Police leaders

48

12. This philosopher argued that with the proper knowledge a person will always do good.

Socrates.

49

12. This philosopher proposed that doing good was a habit that must be inculcated at an early age, and once doing good becomes habitual, a person could do nothing but.

Aristotle.

50

12. This philosopher wrote that the highest good comes from loving the truth and doing all things for the sake of the truth.

Plato.

51

12. Philosophical giants who attempted to define and refine ethics were:

1. Socrates.
2. Plato.
3. Aristotle.

52

12. Through interactions with family and society we come to understand the...

Difference between good and bad behavior.

53

12. Virtues include:

discretion, , courage, self-restraint, honesty, loyalty, generosity, modesty, and responsibility.

54

12. We learn to practice ethical behavior during our early years of growth through maturation as we…

Interact with family and society.

55

13. Deciding not to behave ethically or opting out of doing the right thing, this behavior has not commanded the attention of the public in the same way as…

Overt acts.

56

13. Opting out of doing the right thing also contributes to public perception that police officers are (__) and (__).

(corrupt) (untrustworthy)

57

13. Guidelines concerning performance of officer duties, responsibilities, discretion, and use of force

Law Enforcement Code of Ethics and Law Enforcement Code of Conduct.

58

13. It is just as unethical as overtly questionable behavior.

Deciding not to behave ethically.

59

16. All police agency (__) have the power to (__) ethical behavior – becoming (__ __) by example.

(personnel) (model) (ethical leaders)

60

16. Citizen's trust is an (__ __) for effective police work.

(essential ingredient)

61

16. Essential for all police officers, regardless of rank.

Ethical leadership training and development.

62

16. Just as unethical behavior by one can trigger it in another, ethical behavior can also spread when individuals...

model it consistently.

63

16. Leadership is the art and science of ethically using…

Communication, activities, and behaviors to influence, motivate, or mobilize others to action.

64

16. Loss of trust due to unethical behavior by police agency personnel can also damage…

Hard-won perceptions of policing as a profession.

65

16. Police leadership development programs focus primarily on the promotion of police officers to...

mid or upper level management positions.

66

13. This publication promoted ethics as an essential ingredient for modern policing.

1936 publication of August Volmer's The Police in Modern Society.

67

13. With the 1936 publication of August Vollmer's "the police in modern society", a broad-based interest emerged in the idea that…

Police work should be subject to ethical standards.

68

16. Police leadership development programs focus primarily on the promotion of police officers to...

mid or upper level management.

69

16. Research proves that unethical people who become part of an ethical society or organization soon begin to…

Emulate and embrace ethical behavior.

70

16. Subordinates (__ __) based on what a leader demonstrates.

(model behavior)

71

16. Very few police leadership development programs focus on...

Ethical leadership development at all ranks.

72

17. Public service orientation, common language/vocabulary/system for licensing or credentialing.

Characteristics shared by all professions.

73

17. An association that promotes profession's standards and interests. (Police have PERF- police executive research forum, and IACP)

Characteristics shared by all professions.

74

17. Occupation/discipline requiring members to adhere to prescribe standards of behavior and competence.

Profession.

75

17. Characteristics of profession:

(Recognized body of knowledge profession specific) (Common goals/principles) (Code of ethics/standards of conduct) (public service orientation) (common language) (System for licensing/credentialing) (Association that promotes professional standards and interest)

76

17. Common goals and principles, and a code of ethics and standards of conduct.

Characteristics shared by all professions.

77

17. Recognized body of knowledge specific to the profession.

Characteristic shared by all professions.

78

18. At various times in the past, experts have characterized police officers as…

"Unprofessional professionals" or as an "ambivalent force".

79

18. Confusing terms used in the past to characterize police officers reflect the fact that the law gives certain powers to police officers while also…

Restricting their actions to preserve personal liberty in our democratic society.

80

18. To qualify as a member of any profession, including policing, people must gain...

knowledge and develop skills relevant to that profession.

81

20. Any organization can fail without...

strong leaders.

82

20. Every member of every police agency thus has the (__) and (__) to become a leader.

(opportunity) (responsibility)

83

20. Knowing what skills constitute effective leadership is not enough, police personnel no matter what rank they hold, most also have the...

courage to put those skills into action.

84

20. Leadership should begin with the (__ __) of the agency and spread throughout all levels of the organization, including the (__ __ __).

(chief executive) (line officer level)

85

20. (__ __) have the most direct contact with citizens and possess broad (__) powers.

(Line officers) (discretionary)

86

20. Whenever line officers answer a call for service they must function as…

Leaders.

87

20. Whether they wish to be or not, all officers are problem solvers, and problem-solving ability is a…

leadership skill

88

21. Directs subordinates in the completion of tasks towards a specific organizational goal.

Managers.

89

21. Oversees work of subordinates, available to answer questions, provides training for tasks, and account to superiors for subordinates performance.

Supervisor.

90

21. Characteristics: Directs employees.

Manager or Supervisor (only characteristic in table shared by both)

91

21. Influences and motivates, displays integrity, models ethical behavior, creates mission, tenaciously pursues goals, builds relationships, focuses on strategy.

Leader.

92

21. Plans activities, organizes resources, controls cost and quality, and directs employees.

Manager.

93

21. Leaders may supervise and manage, but they also take responsibility for ...

Influencing and motivating others.

94

21. Focus on directing and maintaining existing operations.

Managers and Supervisors.

95

21. Guide growth and change in their organization or group with an eye on the future.

Leaders.

96

21. They have a dual responsibility when demonstrating leadership to be role models/authority figures and communicate executive decisions to officers.

middle managers/line supervisors.

97

21. He directs employees, inspects work, evaluates performance, rewards good work, and corrects poor performance.

Supervisors.

98

21. To manage a progressive organization and to plan for the future while also addressing challenges and needs in the present, it takes a (__).

(leader)

99

21. While (__) account for their subordinates performance to superiors, (__) account for subordinate's actions.

(Supervisors) (Leaders)

100

21. Without the (__) to put skills into action, an officer is just another person in the crowd of (__).

(courage) (badges)

101

22. (_ __) to becoming a leader is wanting to do so.

(A key)

102

22. A police agency's administrative activities fall into three broad categories:

1. Line Operations.
2. Administrative Support.
3. Auxiliary Services.

103

22. Activities that serve the public and goals of the organization directly fall under (__ __).

Line Operations.

104

23. Activities in this category are not typically outsourced.

Administrative Support.

105

23. Activities that serve agency's needs and have little direct impact on community.

Administrative Support

106

23. Activities that support line operations.

Auxiliary Services

107

23. Hiring, training, budgeting, and internal affairs.

Administrative Support

108

23. Records maint, property/evidence mgmt, forensic lab, detention, alcohol testing, facilities/equip maint, and coordinating volunteers.

Auxiliary Services

109

23.Some of these services can be outsourced.

Auxiliary Services