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Flashcards in Chapter 06 Deck (213):
1

141. Policing strategy: Emphasizes reducing response time to calls-for-service.

Traditional policing strategy.

2

141. The policing strategy In which management may strive to concentrate authority at the top of the organizational hierarchy.

Traditional policing strategy.

3

141. Which policing strategy requires strict obedience to formalized lines of communication and reporting?

Traditional policing strategy.

4

141. This is strongly determined by the policing strategies adopted by the agency.

Police agency's structure

5

141. Police agencies using volunteers should be committed to giving it the same commitment it gives to other programs-by clearly establishing:

Volunteer values, vision, mission, and goals.

6

141. Policing strategy: Management's aim is for Decentralization.

Problem solving and community oriented strategies.

7

141. Policing strategies: An agency oriented toward dispersing authority among lower-level employees uses:

Problem solving and community oriented strategies.

8

141. Policing strategies: Management allows communication outside formal, vertical lines of authority.

Problem solving and community oriented strategies.

9

141. Management may aim for decentralization-dispersing authority among lower level employees.

Problem solving and community oriented strategies.

10

141. Being different types within an agency, these may also emphasize different policing strategies.

Divisions, units, departments.

11

141. Different divisions, units, and departments within an agency may have different relationship configurations that do not:

Reflect the structure of the agency's formal organizational chart.

12

141. In a division that operates on the principles characterizing community policing strategy, unit commanders may communicate freely outside:

Formal lines of authority.

13

141. Peers in other units and citizen volunteers are considered individuals outside:

Formal lines of authority.

14

141. How a police agency is structured has close links to what it's:

organizational culture is like.

15

141. An agency may be more likely to have a less formal organizational structure when characterized by:

By a relatively informal, open culture.

16

141. Agencies characterized by a relatively informal, open culture may likely have an organizational structure that is:

Less formal and encourages communication across divisions and between individuals who do not have formal authority over one another.

17

141. Less formal organizational structures encourage communications across divisions and:

Between individuals who do not have formal authority over one another.

18

141. This is shaped by the thoughts, speech, actions, values, and beliefs held by people who work in the organization.

Organizational culture.

19

141. Police agencies may differ in their culture but they share:

Common cultural characteristics that make them collectively distinctive from other types of organizations.

20

141. These are shared by police agencies, making them collectively distinctive from other types of organizations.

Common cultural characteristics.

21

141. A police chief can set the tone for the:

Organizational culture.

22

141. The lines of authority and rules governing communication are rigid in this culture.

A reason the traditional command-and-control culture arose.

23

141. It enables officers to respond swiftly to calls for service and to resolve crisis.

A reason the traditional command-and-control culture arose.

24

141. People move quickly to fill their roles the instant the need arises when everyone understands who is in charge of which aspects of a service call or a crisis.

A reason the traditional command-and-control culture arose.

25

141. Clarity about responsibilities reduces the risk of confusion and delay in officers response time.

A reason the traditional command-and-control culture arose.

26

141. Organizational cultures: It restricts communication among peers., and limits innovation and creativity.

Traditional command-and-control culture.

27

141. The reason traditional command-and-control culture limits innovation and creativity.

Officers conclude that their ideas are not welcome in the agency's upper ranks.

28

141. This type of culture is believed to prevent police corruption because it does not foster police-citizen familiarity and restricts officer use of discretion.

Traditional command-and-control culture

29

141. Elements of the command-and-control culture will always be present in every police agency because:

Calls for service and crisis will always arise.

30

141. Anyone wishing to change an agency's culture to incorporate elements of community policing should build those elements around the

cmnd-n-control structures already present rather than trying to replace the traditional culture.

31

142. They have the ability to affect those within their sphere of influence.

All personnel in the agency.

32

142. All personnel in the agency have the ability to affect those within their sphere of influence, whether or not they are in:

Positions of formal authority.

33

142. They can slowly alter the culture by demonstrating and encouraging elements of community policing among those within their sphere of influence.

Managers and officers at all levels.

34

142. Managers and officers at all levels can slowly alter the culture by demonstrating and encouraging elements of community policing among:

Those within their sphere of influence.

35

142. As these persons hire recruits and instruct them in community policing concepts and applications the agency's culture may change.

Managers

36

142. As they modify their beliefs and community policing practices are integrated with traditional policing strategy, the agency's culture may change.

Officers who view community policing with suspicion.

37

142. How many forces have been identified by researchers, that give rise to the traditional police culture?

six

38

142. Six forces that give rise to the traditional police culture:

law.........................morality.........................................
bureaucracy..........competence..................................
safety.....................demonstrated individual courage

39

142. Of the 6 forces that give rise to traditional culture: It is constant and immutable.

Law

40

142. Of the 6 forces that give rise to traditional culture: There can be no compromise when it comes to enforcing it.

Law

41

142. Of the 6 forces that give rise to traditional culture: Theoretically, the police must be impervious to:

Pleas of innocence, tears, or bribes.

42

142. Toward citizens who violate the law, police must maintain an attitude of:

Command and control.

43

142. It exists in public organizations, as in private organizations, to ensure adherence to established critical policies & Procedures.

The bureaucratic structure.

44

142. In combination with the law it forms the formal aspects of traditional police culture.

Bureaucracy

45

143. A police officers number one priority.

Citizen safety

46

143. The forces of safety, competence, and morality are all directly related to:

Police personnel interactions with the citizens the agency serves.

47

143. To ensure citizen and officer safety, officers must make these a priority.

Safety, competence, and morality.

48

143. Using training to solve whatever problems present themselves during the course of an officer's designated shift.

Competence

49

143. In this context it means officers will deal fairly and impartially with all citizens.

Morality

50

143. Various cultures may define this differently and officers must acknowledge such differences.

Morality

51

143. Most cultures still uphold these that are common virtually for any society.

Universal moral standards

52

143. These are associated with the moral and legal wrong of murder.

Universal moral standards

53

143. This quality appears to determine an officers reputation.

Individual courage.

54

143. These officers are more revered than those who solve problems through negotiation or occupy desktops.

Officers who demonstrate consistent and visible bravery.

55

143. This culture rewards courage.

Command and control culture.

56

143. Many police officers feel isolated from those who do not work in law enforcement as a consequence of:

The command and control culture characterizing most police agencies.

57

143. As a consequence of the command and control culture characterizing most police agencies, police officers tend to distrust their:

Superiors within the department.

58

143. As a consequence of the command-and-control culture, many police officers often feel comfortable only in the company of...

other officers who are closely associated in rank.

59

143. Most police officers believe that any person who is not a police officer cannot understand these.

Pressures and unwritten rules inherent in police work.

60

143. If an officer's action is unethical, immoral, or even illegal, there is an almost universal understanding that one doesn't inform:

Police administrators

61

144. An officer who assaults an unruly subject after a chase expects the backup officer or partner will support the individual and not advise a:

Superior officer.

62

144. These officers can be placed in real danger if peers refuse to watch their backs and perilous situations.

Reporting officers. (Snitches) (get stitches)

63

144. Can take control of emerg situation and de-escalate conflict by using a long-range acoustic device to brdcst warn instr.

Police officers as leaders.

64

144. Indiv officers can help soften the hard edges of traditional cmnd-and-control police culture by:

Shifting fluidly between command-and-control tactics and community policing as dictated by the situation.

65

144. Officers with the ability to shift between cmnd and control tactics and Community policing.

Leader officers

66

144. They are highly effective on the street and elsewhere because they can adapt their behavior as needed to manage different types of situations.

Leader officers

67

144. They are more likely to negotiate with suspects then approach them with firearm drawn.

Leader officers

68

144. These officers do not shy away from confrontation.

Leader officers

69

144. They employ verbal skills first, rather than physical force, to gain control of the situation or offender.

Leader officers

70

144. These officers, commonly exhibit aggressive behavior.

Street officers

71

144. Enjoy arresting persons who may become violent so they can subdue and control them.

Street officers

72

144. These officers participate enthusiastically in situations fraught with danger.

Street officers

73

144. Many of these officers view leader officers as weak or ineffective.

Street officers

74

144. Tend to be less effective in most situations than leader officers.

Street officers

75

144. Most police encounters do not necessitate:

Strong verbal commands or the use of force.

76

144. Owing to their lack of commo skills and their exclusionary att., they may be unable to deliver calm, reasonable, respectful direction, eg, tactical commo, for de-escalation of conflict and successful resolution.

Street officers

77

145. Through training these officers can strengthen "soft" skills.

Street officers

78

145. "Soft" skills (Communication, negotiation, and tolerance) are essential to being a:

Leader officer

79

145. These officers can and should enhance ability to respond with command-and-control tactics in situations of imminent danger.

Leader officers

80

145. These standards constitute a key component of a police agencies organizational design and are strongly interlinked with culture.

Behavior standards (Standards of conduct)

81

145. These standards influence what people say, think, and do in the organization.

Behavioral standards

82

145. New members of police agencies go through a process to internalize these.

Agency's behavioral standards

83

145. Particularly valuable and advantageous behaviors in a police agency:

Adapting to change, learning, demonstrating ethical leadership, and placing customers first.

84

145. Almost all organizations – police agencies include – establish standards for:

Acceptable behavior

85

145. Organizations ensure compliance with standards for acceptable behavior through:

1. Employee pre-service/in-service training.
2. Documented/published policies/procedures.

86

145. Standards of conduct as defined by the police agency.

Behavioral standards

87

145. These standards are particularly valuable and advantageous to the agencies culture and structure.

Behavioral standards

88

146. Many citizens believe that police officers should be held to a higher standard of behavior, owing to the:

authority they possess to enforce the law and the fact they carry weapons.

89

146. Which officers are encouraged to change their behavior and, if needed, take part in remedial training programs?

Those who deviate from accepted behavioral norms.

90

146. If a person continues to violate codes of behavior, the agency will likely initiate a disciplinary process starting with a formal (__), then move to (__), (__) or (__) if problematic behavior continues.

(reprimand) (suspension) (resignation) (termination)

91

146. In a police organization, new members are first acculturated to the new organization's behavioral standards through the:

Acdmy experience, field trng, and probationary period.

92

146. Seasoned members of the organization observe and judge new members on how well they:

Demonstrate acceptable behavior.

93

146. This makes making police work unique since it may strongly influence an officer's personal life, relationships, career opportunities, agency longevity, and professional reputation.

Behavior both on and off duty.

94

146. Police agencies are constantly subjected to change in the form of:

New challenges, new theories and practices on how to better serve communities, and new technologies.

95

146. What two events can trigger change?

Internal and external events.

96

146. This internal change may lead to other mgnt personnel changes, modifications in agency strategies, and daily activities carried out by line officers.

A new police chief is appointed.

97

146. This change occurs when a new governor or mayor mandates new safety initiatives that police agencies are required to implement.

External

98

146. Which agencies adapt fluidly to new developments?

The most effective agencies.

99

147. Updating IT platforms to better track and respond to crime is an example of the most effective agencies doing this.

Adapting fluidly to new developments.

100

147. Modifying their hiring practices to bring in recruits with stronger leadership qualities is an example of the most effective agencies doing this.

Adapting fluidly to new developments.

101

147. They help their agency achieve flexibility needed to keep pace with new developments and deliver better service,

Police managers and officers who can adapt to change.

102

147. Within a police agency, change can take these four forms.

radical
incremental
nondirected
directed

103

147. A major goal of MCI.

Empower patrol officers to conduct thorough initial investigations of crime and determine whether follow up by detective or police investigator has merit.

104

147. The aim of MCI.

To create a criminal investigation process that makes more effective/efficient use of police investigators' time and other agency resources.

105

148. Three valuable innovations and processes for police agencies that MCI has helped introduce.

Improved use of resources. ..
Better collaboration. ..............
More effective trng. ..............

106

148. ID the innovation: Patrl off considers solvability factors and decides whether to recommend case be closed or referred for follow-up.

Improved use of resources

107

148. If solvability factors are numerous and significant, and agency follow-up investigation policy allows, the patrol officers may recommend he solve the case himself.

Improved use of resources

108

148. MCI: A case continued for follow-up investigation if officers believe it would cause considerable concern in community or as part of a current crime pattern.

Improved use of resources

109

148. ID the innovation: Patrl off considers solvability factors and decides whether to recommend case be closed or referred for follow-up.

Improved use of resources

110

148. If solvability factors are numerous and significant, and agency follow-up investigation policy allows, the patrol officers may recommend he solve the case himself.

Improved use of resources

111

148. MCI: A case continued for follow-up investigation if officers believe it would cause considerable concern in community or as part of a current crime pattern.

Improved use of resources

112

148. Under MCI, who could become investigation supervisors with the knowledge and skills necessary to assign cases for closure or follow up?

Patrol supervisors

113

148. Gradual adoption of new ways of operating designed to improve community service over time

Incremental change

114

148. Carefully planned, strategic process designed to improve EVERY area of a police agency.

Directed Change

115

148. Through this change a police agency adapts slowly, over time, to new or tested approaches.

Incremental change

116

148. change example: an agency agrees to participate in (911) emergency communication arrangements.

Incremental change

117

148. Progress is formally evaluated during and after this change is implemented.

Directed change

118

148. This change is agency wide, comprehensive, and formal.

Directed change

119

148. This change occurs when a police agency installs a new computer system.

Directed change

120

148. This change must not be implemented in a disjointed, random manner, rather it must be planned for and executed carefully, step-by-step.

Directed change

121

149. With this change one person takes charge of overall implementation, delegating various stages to subordinates.

Directed change

122

149. This change is a less formal process and affects only those individuals who implement it.

Nondirected change

123

149. This change occurs when command officers direct crime prevention personnel to make early-morning stops of pedestrians to ID them.

Nondirected change

124

149. When/why police experts intro new ldrshp concepts and re-examined principles attributed to Sir Robert Peel?

In the 1980s in response to changes in society at large.

125

149. The Emphasizing of strengthening community relationships during the 1980's were fueled by these pivotal developments.

1. Advent of community policing.
2. Tech advances.
3. Demand for new standards of police professionalism and accountability.

126

149. New Developments in policing demand a new style of police leadership that promises to extend from the:

Top level of agency management down to line officers on the street.

127

149. They are notoriously resistant to change.

Police officers

128

150. These can sabotage a transformation effort in any organization, not just a police agency.

Lack of willingness or inability to adapt to change.

129

150. To boost chances of succeeding, this should be introduced slowly and methodically.

A change initiative

130

150.They should make change transparent all of their agency by issuing regular progress reports and notices of upcoming changes to the entire agency.

Police leaders

131

150. They should establish a sense of urgency – a feeling that change must happen for the agency to survive and thrive.

Police leaders

132

150. Pointing out the agency will lose funding or be required to implement a Reduction in force, is an example of:

Establishing a sense of urgency

133

150. To boost the chances of organizational change succeeding, police leaders should build a committed coalition including:

Key internal stakeholders, key external stakeholders.

134

151. Which stakeholders can help drive change by convincing skeptics of its value?

Key internal and external stakeholders.

135

150. These guidelines help police leaders effect organizational change.

1. Intro chg initiative slowly/methodically.
2. Est sense of urgency.
3. Bld committed coalition of stkhldrs.
4. Develop plan to implement chg.
5. Continually commo chg effort's status to all.

136

151. Openness and the ability to learn is a highly desirable behavior in a police agency because it enables people to...

adapt to change.

137

151. In the past, leaders often drove change by having:

Subordinates engage in training.

138

151. Given the complexity of changes facing police agency's today, it is no longer sufficient for leaders to drive change by having...

subordinates take part in training.

139

151.To position agency personnel to adapt to change, leaders must now create:

An environment that fosters organizational learning.

140

151. In the environment that fosters organizational learning, individuals of a police agency are...

Constantly strengthening their KSA's to adapt to change.

141

151. Social process in which individuals interact to exchange info that enables them to make well-informed decisions.

Organizational learning

142

151. Police can use these meetings to learn about citizen concerns first hand.

Community meetings

143

152. These meetings have traditionally been used to enable residents to express their opinions.

Town meetings

144

152. People use the following types of learning processes in mastering the ability to change:

Adaptive learning
Proactive learning
Experimentation

145

152. Learning process in which people make changes in reaction to alterations in their environment.

Adaptive


146

152. When people drive over a pothole then swerve the next time to avoid the it illustrates this learning process.

Adaptive learning

147

152. Learning process when people modify behavior, and work process deliberately by anticipating what might change in their environment then deciding how to prepare.

Proactive learning

148

152. Learning process: In preparation employees review information about other agencies a new chief worked previously.

Proactive learning

149

152. Learning that goes beyond reacting to environmental change, and it positions people to prepare for the future.

Proactive learning

150

152. Learning process: trying something new then using info/insights from the effort to effect change.

Experimentation

151

151. An org in which people can learn and adapt as part of SOP is...

Remarkably effective

152

152. Systems for generating and exchanging information create conditions that...

foster organizational learning

153

152. Willingness/ability to draw lessons from experiences and apply the lessons in new situations describe...

abilities essential to learning.

154

152. Becoming a learning organization is a long-term process and commitment that begins at the top level of the organization and is (__) to (__) leaders.

directed, subordinate

155

152. Most police agencies do not possess (__), (__), (__ __), with the leadership talent necessary to spearhead a transition from (__)-and-(__) to organizational learning.

(managers) (supervisors) (line officers)
(command) (control)

156

153. The best leadership programs (__) the challenges of transforming an organization's (__) into one of (__).

(acknowledge) (culture) (learning)

157

153. The best leadership programs familiarize (__ __) with the change process.

(aspiring leaders)

158

The best leadership programs explain how continual learning supports an agency's (__) and (__).

(Mission) (objectives)

159

153. Programs that merely refresh topics recruits have already encountered in school or through other training experiences.

In service training programs

160

153. To support organizational learning, leadership programs must be go beyond refreshing topics already learned and cover:

1. Org change processes
2. Proactive learning
3. Value of conducting research

161

153. These leadership programs need to teach (__ __) how to make continual learning a (__ __) in their agency.

(aspiring leaders) (core value)

162

152. Organizational learning cannot occur unless:

Leaders create conditions that foster it and encourage abilities essential to learning.

164

152. A police agency cannot become a learning organization until it develops:

Leaders at all levels that will drive the effort.

165

153. Agencies must groom personnel for leadership roles through an:

Organized leadership program

166

153. The best leadership programs provide support for learning in the form of:

Learning teams and executive coaching.

167

153. Most police agencies only scratch the surface of organizational learning by providing:

In-service training programs

168

154. Willingness/ability to do what ought to be done in any situation and encourage, motivate, and influence others to behave ethically.

Ethical leadership

169

154. Three questions to determine whether behavior is ethical or unethical is whether it adheres to:

1. Laws and govt codes?
2. Stds of ethical behavior defined by my agency?
3. Stated professional stds of ethical behavior?

170

155. to this type of dilemma cannot be resolved police personnel by relying solely on documented codes of conduct .

A true ethical dilemma.

171

155. THE dilemma which police personnel cannot resolve by relying on documented codes of conduct.

A true ethical dilemma.

172

155. To resolve true ethical dilemmas, police personnel must augment resources by learning to...

weigh the complex ramifications of each proposed course of action and make informed judgment calls.

173

155. Putting customers first by understanding and exceeding their expectations and requirements has become an Important...

behavioral standard.

174

155. Thanks to this concept of a (__ __) cop, many police agencies are searching for new ways to engage the public.

(customer oriented)

175

155. Police agencies represent their local and state governments as visible and recognizable...

providers of service to customers.

176

155. Customer is any (__), (__), or (__) that receives a product or service and is directly served by an individual or organization.

(individual) (group) (organization)

177

155. Three types of police agency customers:

1. Citizens
2. Other pub agcys served by police
3. Internal customers

178

155. Individuals, neighborhoods, community grps, and businesses in the jurisdiction represent this customer type.

Citizens

179

155. Code officers and EMS services requesting assistance from police.

Other pub agencies served by police

180

156. Groups or individuals w/in a police agency, served by other groups.

Internal customers

181

156. A team provides in-service training to officers, and the ME's office works closely with the Crime invest Unit, illustrates this customer type.

Internal customers

182

156. Services that police AGENCIES offer customers.

1. Primary activities police perform.
2. Providing info to customers.

183

156. Explaining how residents can make their home burglar resistant, patrolling neighborhoods, solving crime and apprehending criminals.

Primary activity police perform.

184

156. Crime stats, accident reports, written overview of pub safety initiatives, and driving directions to citizens.

Providing info to customers

185

156. Have a tendency to focus more on completing tasks than knowing and meeting customers changing needs.

Police managers

186

156. Like all customers, those served by this entity have constantly evolving needs.

Police agency

187

156. A police (__) may also offer services that differ from what customers are say they need.

(organization)

188

156. (__ __) can know how customer needs are shifting by gathering information, then using it to (__) the services they provide.

(Agency personnel) (modify)

189

156. Use of data to identify seasonal patterns in convenience store robberies, then design a patrol strategy.

Agency knowing how customer's needs are shifting.

190

156. By knowing how their customers needs change, (__ __) can effectively allocate (__ __) to efforts that produce the best possible service for the (__).

(Police managers) (agency resources) (community)

191

156. In monitoring changing needs, (__ __) must determine not only what each customer wants but also when service will be provided.

(Police administrators)

192

156. They must determine why a particular service is needed, how long it will last, and what other services may be attached to the request.

Police administrators

193

157. To further determine and fulfill customers service needs, (__ __) can segment customers into groups based on similar (__), (__), (__), and other variables affecting how a police agency delivers services.

(Police Managers) (needs) (expectations) (conduct)

194

157. Satisfied customers are crucial to any police agency's (__), if not it's very (__).

(success) (survival)

195

157. They can help ensure their agency receives the resources to serve communities in its jurisdiction well by working to anticipate/satisfy customer's needs.

"Customer-oriented cops"


196

136. This refers to the configuration of relationships within an organization.

Organizational structure

197

136. This is reflected in it's vertical relationships, horizontal relationships, community relationships.

Police agency's organizational structure.

198

156. Explaining how residents can make their home burglar resistant and patrolling neighborhoods.

Primary activity police perform.

199

136. Who has authority over whom; who reports to whom.

Vertical relationships

200

136. Who collaborates and communicates with whom.

Horizontal relationships

201

136. Depicts vertical and horizontal relationships.

Organizational chart

202

136. How agency personnel collaborate with citizens and community leaders to deliver better service.

Community relationships

203

136. The levels of authority and numbers of ranks, positions and functions illustrated in an organizational chart differ depending on:

agcy size, community size, scope/nature of pub safety probs, policing stratgys emphasized by agcy

204

136. Illustrates the levels of authority and numbers of ranks, positions and functions of an agency.

Organizational chart

205

136. Should flow down through the chain of command from higher to lower levels in a police agency.

Authority and decision making

206

136. Concept that each individual working in the agency should report to only one supervisor.

Unity of Command

207

136. Concept that each unit or situation should be under the control of a single individual.

Unity of Command

208

136. Idea that each manager in a police agency should supervise only a reasonable number of individuals or units.

Span of Control

209

136. Depicts those with the highest levels of authority at the top and those with lower levels of authority below them.

Police agency's organizational chart

210

136. Typically flow up or down through the chain of command.

Official discussions

211

136. In the middle, a police agency's organizational chart typically shows..

Captains, lieutenants, sergeants.

212

136. Near the bottom, a police agency's organizational chart typically shows..

officers, civilian personnel (admin asst, clerks, secretaries, budget personnel).

213

136. Vertical relationships depicted in a police agency's organizational chart are strongly informed by...

chain of command
unity of command
span of control

214

136. At the top, a police agency's organizational chart typically shows..

Chief of police, Sheriff, director, police commissioner.