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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Deck (162):
2

399. One who earns the respect of others and can respect oneself.

Courageous self-contained ethical leadership agent.

3

399. These officers are in the perfect position to detect the possibility of unethical behavior and step in before it occurs.

Line officers

4

399. Procedures adopted by military, police, and governments to assist in preventing, reacting to, and investigating terrorist acts.

Counterterrorism

5

399. The process by which individuals aligned their ideology with that of a group and commit themselves to achieving the group's goals through violence.

Radicalization

6

399. Historically, many people believed that terrorist were more interested in…

Capturing media and other attention rather than killing large numbers of people. Now we know better.

7

399. We have learned that the terrorists that wreak the most havoc are those small groups motivated by...

political, ideological, or religious zeal and can blend in with general population.

8

399. Police must invest in intelligence gathering and sharing through community outreach and interagency communication to deal with this source of terrorism.

Radicalization within a community.

9

399. In the coming years, police agencies will need to focus resources on both sources of terrorism:

Radicalization within a community.Radicalization directed from foreign countries.

10

399. With this source of terrorism, intelligence sharing becomes even more critical.

Terrorism directed from abroad.

11

399. Regardless of the source, police will need to understand how terrorists...

Are radicalized and how they organize themselves.

12

399. Police agencies might track foreign-born or domestic radicals through…

Intelligence fusion centers or similar interagency task forces.

13

400. If terror groups organize within local communities, the police should...

Focus on sources of radicalization within these communities.

14

400. A 2007 national Institute of Justice study revealed that radicalization of correctional clients is occurring in prison mostly through...

Personal relationships among inmates.

15

400. The radicalization process for inmates begins with a political or religious conversion through…

Extremist teachings, ultimately leading some inmates to commit violent acts once they have been released from prison.

16

400. Citizens tend to respond more favorably to outreach efforts of state, county, and local police, rather than the federal level, affirming the...

Critical role of local police in combating terrorism.

17

400. Strategies designed to prevent radicalization in the first place.

Counterradicalization strategies.

18

400. The strategies are just as important or more important than strategies aimed at reacting once a terrorist act has occurred.

Counterradicalization strategies.

19

400. A particularly disturbing development in the rise of terrorism against Americans is the…

Radicalization of US citizens who go on to commit terrorist acts within this country.

20

400. Police will need to face this harsh fact to contribute to the fight against terror.

That US citizens would wish to inflict terror or harm on fellow Americans.

21

401. In the future as sources of terrorism shift and terrorists' strategies and tactics change shape, to combat terrorism, police agencies must adopt…

Flexible strategies and tactics.

22

401. Anyone managing the Homeland security program would do well to leverage support and contributions from…

Police organizations at all levels national, state, and municipal.

23

401. To be most effective, efforts of the government to enhance homeland defense will need to adopt an...

"All hazards approach" rather than focusing only on counterterrorism or emergency management.

24

402. DHS must develop mitigation and recovery programs for…

Natural and technological disasters as well as terrorist incidents.

25

402. DHS must take an "all-hazards approach"-Defining it's mission as addressing...

any situation that endangers US citizens.

26

402. DHS must train and leverage local, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, and volunteers in...

Emergency management.

27

402. The toughest challenge in using local police to support homeland security efforts is…

Coordinating the 17,000 to 20,000 police agencies that exist across the United States.

28

402. This is the largest protective resource in the United States and now outnumber the police 3 to 1.

Private security services.

29

403. Decisions about how to deploy local police for antiterrorist activities will likely depend on the (__ __ __) facing the jurisdiction.

(level of threat)

30

In this era of globalization, free and democratic societies need to collaborate to fight terrorism. If they can manage this feat then...

All criminals, including terrorists, may find themselves with no where in the world to hide.

31

403. Across the globe, national leaders are debating how to incarcerate and adjudicate those suspected of (__ __).

terrorist activities.

32

404. All signs point to the strong possibility that budgeting will become increasingly difficult for...

Police organizations.

33

404. In recent years, this has emerged as citizens balk at rising taxes.

Outsourcing of some police services.

34

404. Critics of police outsourcing argue that consolidating local resources with a larger police entities will…

Compromise citizens' safety.

35

404. This may lead citizens and business owners to hire private security firms to make up for the loss of police presence.

Outsourcing of police services.

36

404. With the outsourcing of police services an interesting question remains: Can the government relegate...

Public Safety to a private firm?

37

406. He must think like a business person to apply business principles to planning, budgeting, and other administrative activities.

The police administrator of the future.

38

405. In the future, people may increasingly depend on private organizations for services, primarily because of constrained ...

public police resources.

39

406. He must demonstrate leadership skills and develop a comprehensive budget strategy that includes immediate measures for reducing spending and proposals for expanding funding opportunities.

The police administrator of the future.

40

406. There is a strong trend toward applying ethical leadership and economical/fiscal management principles to...

police administration.

41

406. The strong trend toward applying ethical leadership and economic/fiscal management principles will continue, thanks to a growing emphasis on..

relationship building and fiscal management.

42

408. Police agencies must also take a more rigorous approach toward performance assessment and evaluation at the…

Individual level.

43

408. When deciding whether to promote an officer, (__) and (__) would do well to take feedback from coworkers and community members into account.

(managers) (supervisors)

44

408. Feedback showing that a particular officer is especially (__ __), should count among the criteria for promotion, just as (__) in the line of duty counts.

(customer focused) (courage)

45

408. In making promotion decisions, (__) and (__) should consider how subordinates demonstrate ethical leadership skills, including (__ __) leadership and (__) leadership.

(managers) (supervisors) (level five) (servant)

46

408. Individuals (__ __) should be required to assess themselves, identifying their own strengths and weaknesses.

( seeking promotion)

47

408. It is important that all police officers, no matter what the rank, become…

Self-contained ethical leadership agents.

48

408. Managers and supervisors can ask how well officers reporting to them leave their ego behind and for the community, the agency, and their colleagues. proceed with confidence and courage to do…

the right thing at the right time.

49

408. To surmount hiring and training challenges in the future, (__ __) must develop fresh strategies to attract talent and offer (__) solutions to any (__) of policing that discourage people.

(police administrators) (creative) (characteristics)

50

408. Many police agencies experience difficulty recruiting. The problem appears to stem from the widespread perception that policing is not a...

"real" profession.

51

408. This belief, policing is not a "real" profession, was aided by notoriously low wages paid for police work and lack of applicants with...

diverse backgrounds or college educations.

52

408. Pay has improved considerably. However, at the same time police work has acquired a reputation for being a…

Thankless job characterized by impossible levels of stress and danger.

53

408. Police work has acquired a reputation of being a thankless job characterized by impossible levels of stress in danger. Thus, people with...

A college education may find other occupations more attractive and challenging.

54

408. To draw qualified and desirable candidates, police agency recruiters have begun resorting to…

Incentives like signing bonuses and advertising campaigns similar to the US Army's "Be all you can be".

55

409. With police agencies under close scrutiny for financial accountability, this type of training will probably become the norm rather than the exception.

Cross-Training

56

408. Candidates who are bilingual, trilingual, or willing to master several languages will prove more attractive in the future as American society continues to…

Grow more diverse.

57

409. These new technologies offer additional and less expensive avenues for building recruits' skills.

Cross-training and virtual academies.

58

409. Training in different types of tasks and job specifications.

Cross-Training

59

409. Exposes employees to knowledge about the workings of the agency and such specialized tasks as investigations, and positions agency to deploy individuals where needed.

Cross-Training

60

410. The ability to shift personnel seamlessly between and among job tasks not only saves money, but it also promotes…

"Knowledge management" in a "learning organization".

61

410. The retention of knowledge most important to an organization.

Knowledge management.

62

410. The premise of knowledge management:If only a few individuals possess specific knowledge of a process or task and they left the agency...

That knowledge could be lost.

63

410. This effect often helps a police agency develop more powerful solutions to problems.

The synergistic effect of people working together.

64

410. Theoretically, cross- training ensures that expertise and knowledge...

remain in house.

65

410. Development whereby recruits and senior officers take courses online allowing flexibility to take a course anytime rather than in person during prescribed hours.

Virtual Academy classes.

66

411. They will continue to face the question of how best to communicate with an ever widening array of increasingly demanding constituents.

Administrators as well as line officers in police agencies.

67

411. Communicating with the public in a nonenforcement manner is a challenge for many...

Police personnel.

68

411. They want clear, understandable information about what the police are doing, not police jargon or law-enforcement directives.

Constituents - (general public and community members)

69

411. (__ __) of all ranks, as visible leaders in the communities they serve, will need to master the art of using (__ __) when conversing with the public.

(Police officers) (plain language)

70

411. Police officers must perform their duties in a civil manner and demonstrate positive interaction through their (__) and (__) behaviours; for instance, by acting as human beings rather than (__).

(verbal) (nonverbal) (Robocops)

71

411. Within a police agency, effective communication is crucial, therefore Managers and officers must know how to interact (__).

constructively

72

411. A coaching and mentoring rapport that encourages a genuinely warm relationship between individuals.

Constructive engagement.

73

411. (__ __) can use the practice of (__ __) to strengthen their communication with others.

(Police personnel) (constructive engagement)

74

412. Effective communication also includes practicing (__ __).

(Constructive Confrontation)

75

412. Challenging one another's ideas in a nonthreatening manner and supporting the final outcome even if you do not agree with it.

Constructive Confrontation

76

412. This practice encourages openness and discourages personal attacks, emotional outburst, and bullying.

Constructive Confrontation

77

412. Learning how and when to disagree productively can help all members of a police agency uncover...

Fresh perspectives on problems and generate fruitful ideas for solving them.

78

412. By actively participating in constructive confrontation, people commit to…

Implementing the solutions they have generated together.

79

412. Some government policies encourage police to enforce laws according to their…

Spirit rather than their letter.

80

413. It is here to stay, and like most technologies, it is a double edged sword.

The Internet

81

413. Criminals are proving frustratingly innovative in their schemes, especially in cybercrime, sometimes leaving police...

Struggling to catch up.

82

413. To tackle their toughest difficulties, police must expand their boundaries in terms of how they work and how they think. Specifically, the police must...

Embrace the virtual world, broaden their notions of management, and challenge the status quo.

83

413. To seize the advantages offered by the Internet as well as grapple with the problems, police agency...

Administrators must become more "net-centric", or Internet savvy.

84

413. The Internet offers not just information about current criminals and their activities but a gateway to…

Data, and possibly even evidence, about future criminals.

85

414. A computer simulation of a real or imaginary system that enables the user to perform operations on the simulated system and shows effects in real time.

Virtual reality.

86

414. Police will stand a much better chance of staying one step ahead of criminals by understanding how evidence of crimes can...

Come in seemingly innocuous objects like computers.

87

414. To become net-centric, they must embrace the virtual world in addition to the physical world.

Police executives.

88

414. By embracing the virtual world and physical world "they" can become nimble enough to anticipate and vanquish problems that arise in the dynamic environment of cyberspace in addition to those arising in the physical environment.

Police executives.

89

414. The virtual world can also help police master the art of…

Toleration.

90

412. Police recruits will soon be able to use virtual reality to experience life as a person of a...

Different age, race, gender, or cultural orientation.

91

412. One virtual-reality program relies on a social psychology premise that negative stereotyping decreases when the individual gains...

Intensive experience as a member of a different group.

92

412. Testing such simulation, participants showed a significant reduction in Elder stereotyping when they were placed in the...

Avatars (virtual persons) of elderly people.

93

412. To effect real and lasting change, "they" must surrender the previously predominant idea of management as a rigid tall hierarchical structure.

Police executives.

94

412. To effect real and lasting change, police executives must surrender the previously predominant idea of management as a rigid, tall hierarchical structure for one that is...

More flat, fluid, and learn to cooperate with the many levels of the command structure and workforce.

95

414. Officers in the future will receive fewer direct orders and less direct supervision than ever, because...

Resources are shrinking and officers are being held more responsible and accountable.

96

414. Continuing resource constraints have further changed traditional ideas about (__ __).

(police management)

97

412. Because many agencies have committed to augmenting traditional policing with some form of community policing strategy, executives need to view the...

Horizon that lies beyond their agency (potential impact of their decisions on the community).

98

415. Learning to view subordinates as full partners requires a shift in mindset; managers and supervisors must come to appreciate subordinates as (__ __ __).

(inherently valuable individuals).

99

415. "They" must know subordinates as individuals, with interests, skills, and ability to contribute, if they expect to build partnerships and extract value from subordinates.

Police administrators.

100

415. To expand boundaries, (__ __) must reach beyond the assumption that the status quo is the ideal state.

(Police managers)

101

415. Thankfully, today's (__-__) police officers and (__) are more willing to examine prevailing practices strengths and weaknesses.

(line-level) (managers)

102

416. Driving needed change in a police agency is a vital aspect of...

Leadership.

103

415. Police managers and officers can begin reshaping the policing profession in constructive ways by asking (__) questions, trying new (__), and challenging (__) ideas.

(tough) (practices) (ingrained)

104

416. Driving needed change in a police agency will become more crucial than ever in the future because we live in a world of (__ __).

(accelerated change)

105

417. To lead change effectively, (__ __) must craft and communicate a compelling vision of the benefits the proposed change brings.

(police administrators)

106

417. To combat resistance to change, (__ __) must develop a meaningful vision of a better future available if people can bring themselves to make needed changes.

(police leaders)

107

417. To develop a vision, leaders must diagnose the (__) or (__) that the proposed change is intended to address

(problem) (opportunity)

108

418. The tension between having to change things while keeping other things the same makes leading change more difficult and only a (__ __) can manage it.

(true leader)

109

417. (__ __) must take a disciplined approach to executing the change - by selecting and applying a change-leadership model.

(Police administrators)

110

418. Because of this conflict between change and continuity, (__ __) can expect some resistance to proposed new ways of doing things even when (__) have embraced the vision.

(police managers) (employees)

111

418. Selecting and implementing a disciplined (__-__) model can help (__) guide agency employees through this conflict

(change-leadership) (administrators)

112

418. Change-leadership models:

– Lewin basic change model.– Weisbord six-box model.– Kotter strategic change model.

113

418. Lewin basic change model proposes three stages of change:

1. Unfreeze.2. Change.3. Refreeze.

114

419. Weisbord six-box model: To affect formal and informal changes, change leaders must balance six interrelated "boxes":

– Purpose.– Structure.– Relationships.– Rewards.– Leadership.– Helpful mechanisms.

115

419. The three models of change leadership discussed can be seen as...

Complementary models.

116

419. When the three complementary models are used together, they can help "them" navigate the rough terrain of change in their agency.

Police administrators.

117

419. Kotter strategic change model Advocates an eight step model of change leadership:

1. Establish sense of urgency.2. Create guiding coalition.3. Develop vision/change strategy.4. Communicate vision.5. Empower employees.6. Generate short-term wins.7. Consolidate change/produce more.8. Anchor new approach in org's culture.

118

419. Which change leadership model explains the process and simple, understandable language and procedure?

Lewin basic change model.

119

419. Which change leadership model assists with the diagnosis of the problem or future challenges in a clear and reasonable manner?

Weisbord six box model

120

419. Which change leadership model suggests a comprehensive, sequential approach to defining the problem in bringing the needed change to fruition?

Kotter strategic change model

121

419. The Kotter strategic change model rests on the premise that successful transformations are very difficult, and that…

Managers and employees alike can be easily sidetracked away from the effort.

122

418. The Weisbord six-box model: Based on the (__), a (__ __) or group decides what formal changes need to be made and what informal changes are required.

(diagnosis) (change leader)

123

418. The Weisbord six-box model: Implementing (__) changes refers to how people carry out their work, while (__) changes refers to policies and procedures.

(informal) (formal)

124

418. Goal clarity and goal achievement refers to this Weisbord box.

Purpose

125

418. Elements of organizational architecture including role definition, physical layout of offices, and reporting relationships refers to this Weisbord box.

Structure

126

418. Cooperation and conflict management refers to this Weisbord box.

Relationships.

127

418. Incentives to reinforce growth, responsibility, and achievement refers to this Weisbord box.

Rewards.

128

418. Efforts to keep the six boxes in balance refers to this Weisbord box.

Leadership.

129

418. Coordinating technologies like policies, procedures, budgeting, and measurement protocols refer to this Weisbord box.

Helpful mechanisms.

130

418. Change leaders breakdown habits and create a sense of urgency, modify cultural norms, and develop a vision of the better future, describes this Lewin Model stage.

1. Unfreeze.

131

418. Leaders assess the problem or opportunity that requires change and prescribes a change strategy, refers to this Lewin Model stage.

1. Unfreeze

132

418. Leaders persuade people to begin using the proposed new processes and provide needed training, refers to this Lewin Model stage.

2. Change.

133

418. Some observers describe this Lewin Model stage as an intervention, requiring intensive collaboration and cooperation among all players in the organization.

2. Change.

134

418. In this Lewin Model stage, leaders help employees integrate the new behaviors and attitudes into everyday work life.

3. Refreeze.

135

418. In this Lewin Model stage, leaders evaluate the effectiveness of the change process.

3. Refreeze.

136

422. Technology upgrading and maintenance are essential functions in any…

Police agency.

137

422. To fight crime, police need access to the best…

Technology.

138

418. In this Lewin Model stage, leaders drive further changes if needed to improve the organization's performance.

3. Refreeze.

139

422. Advances in technologies designed to combat street crime have stirred enthusiasm and interest within the...

Policing profession and promises to give police important advantages the future.

140

423. Generally, within one second after a firearm is discharged a microphones detects the event and a camera zooms in on a location so authorities can view it.

Gunshot Detection Sensors.

141

423. This technology will be used someday to conduct police lineups.

Virtual Reality.

142

423. With this technology, police can reconstruct the conditions under which a witness saw a suspect, including time of day or night.

Virtual Reality.

143

423. Testing demonstrates the accuracy of eyewitness' identification improves when actual conditions can be replicated.

Virtual Reality.

144

423. Whatever else policing might be, it is an intensely…

People oriented profession that thrives on the human, personal approach.

145

424. Technological devices are excellent but a futuristic "Robocop" cannot replace the human relations qualities and skills of a proficient…

Human line officer who is functioning as a self-contained ethical leadership agent.

146

424. Criminal misconduct perpetrated through information technology.

Cybercrime.

147

424. The question of privacy: Advances in Street crime technology, surveillance cameras and audio sensors, are forcing cities to strike balance between...

public safety and citizen privacy.

148

424. This type of crime takes many forms and provides a virtual venue for conventional crimes such as the exploitation of children, fraud, and attacks on home computers.

Cybercrime.

149

425. Advancements in digital technology along with the growing trend of it's use in cybercrime, will force citizens to make trade-offs between…

Protection from cybercrime and protection of their privacy.

150

426. Most experts believe that this crime, especially against seniors, will become a major category of cybercrime in the future.

Fraud.

151

425. Although the tracking of online incidents against youth is in its infancy, many experts believe that online incidents against youth are..

rarely reported to police.

152

426. What kind of homes contain many vulnerable Devices which cybercriminals find tempting?

Net-Centric homes.

153

427. Cyber criminals use a large number of computers to send huge volumes of messages to,...

Overwhelm and cripple the targeted computers.

154

427. Computer attacks from perpetrators occur over (__) of the time through email intrusions and approximately (__) via websites.

(70%) (35%)

155

427. Cross-Border Cybercrime: Many crimes, including identity theft, are now affecting people beyond the...

Jurisdiction where the criminal is located.

156

427. This situation will make law enforcement cooperation across Jurisdictional lines crucial in the future.

Cross-Border Cybercrime

157

427. Cross-Border Cybercrime: Those in policing must learn to set aside (__ __) against working with other law enforcement entities.

(old prejudices)

158

427. Cross-Border Cybercrime: If police refused to cooperate locally, regionally, nationally, and globally, criminals will operate without much fear of (__) or (__).

(apprehension) (punishment)

159

427. Cross-Border Cybercrime: Who must possess and demonstrate different knowledge and skills to combat this kind of crime?

Investigators.

160

428. Divisional lines must blur if a police agency hopes to...

Tackle cybercrime with any effectiveness.

161

428. One of the biggest obstacles to fighting cybercrime crime will be the average person's..

resistance to investigative practices. (privacy)

162

428. This type of crime crosses all department divisions.

Cybercrimes.

163

428. This type of crime crosses all department divisions.

Cybercrime