Chapter 02 Flashcards Preview

X Final Review Decks > Chapter 02 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 02 Deck (103):
1

32. Community policing reemerged in 1980s as an (__) to traditional policing emphasizing (__ __) between police and the neighborhoods they serve.

(alternative) (close interaction)

3

32. In many ways, especially for people in poverty, the police are the agency of:

First and last resort.

4

33. Makes it difficult to define community policing strategy in formal terms.

Diversity of communities.

5

33. Agency leaders emphasize decentralization by allowing (__-__ __) to make decisions and help solve problems that directly affect citizen's lives in a (__ __).

(line–level officers) (particular neighborhood)

6

33. Recognize crime control (law enforcement) is only one function of the police when using the community policing strategy.

Agency leaders

7

33. Community policing-Problem identification methods:

1. Citizen surveys.
2. Demographic and statistical information.
3. Dialogue with community leaders.

8

34. Balances reactive responses to calls for service with proactive problem solving centered on the causes of crime and disorder.

Community policing model

9

34. Police and citizens join together as partners, they forge a more intimate relationship than with the traditional approach.

Community policing.

10

32. Community policing may work differently in different communities, dependent on...

what their shared values are.

11

34. These characteristics of community policing create advantages, including meaningful communication between citizens and line officers as well as increased communication between line officers and their...

immediate superiors, leading to greater confidence in all agency members.

12

34. Unlike traditional policing, community policing is..

proactive rather than reactive.

13

33. Once the problem is identified, the (__) and (__) then develop solutions, implement them, and (__) their effectiveness.

(agency) (community) (evaluate)

14

33. Community policing key elements: Between police/public there exists:

-bonds of trust.
-collaboration.

15

33. Community policing occurs every time police officers meet with community members to...

discuss and resolve community-based concerns.

16

35. This mentality often erodes communication and in some cases sparks civil unrest.

"Us versus them"

17

33. Community policing occurs every time solutions are customized to fit the..

unique needs and circumstances of a community.

18

35. Community policing recognizes that (__ __) should not be viewed in the same light as chronic (__ __).

(responsible citizens) (criminal offenders)

19

36. Can generate insights to help a police agency strengthen it's community policing efforts.

Internal and external surveys

20

36. Represents the tactical implementation of community policing.

Problem oriented policing strategy

21

35. The practical application of community policing involves...

Citizens and police working together to be tougher on crime.

22

35. Real distinctions between officers and those they serve can cause this understandable mentality to arise.

"Us verses them"

23

35. The most visible and readily available representative government.

The police

24

35. In order to combat community policing problems, police agency members and citizens must strive to cultivate a strong sense of...

community in which all share responsibility for reducing and preventing crime and disorder.

25

35. Use of tools such as surveys can help generate information needed to fine tune an agency's:

Community policing practices.

26

35. Maintaining citizens' confidence in police by responding when police forward citizen complaints/concerns...this kind of cross agency collaboration requires...

Effective leadership by the police.

27

36. The tactical implementation of community policing.

Problem oriented policing

28

36. According to this strategy, problems differ from incidents.

Problem oriented policing strategy.

29

36. A single occurrence requiring a response from police.

Incident

30

36. Problem oriented police officers and managers appreciate problems' significance to community, and prioritizes by it's importance:

1. to community-Top priority
2. to police agency-Next-level priority
3. frequency of occurrence-Next priority

31

36. Outward orientation

Using external criteria such as an agency's impact on chronic problems in the community.

32

37. Develop/implement solutions to problem.

Respond

33

37. Reviewing crime reports, field intel reports, and citizen interviews to determine problem.

Scan

34

37. Evaluate efficiency/effectiveness of response.

Assess

35

37. Gather and examine info about the problem.

Analyze

36

38. Type of crimes: prostitution, loitering, minor drug offenses, and panhandling.

Quality of life.

37

39. Skills required by police officers using problem oriented policing strategy.

Engaging citizens groups, thinking critically, analyzing situations, communicating effectively, assessing usefulness of responses to problems.

38

39. Used to address crime/disorder problems affecting broad territories and resolve a wide variety of specific community problems.

Problem oriented policing strategy.

39

36. Problem oriented police officers and managers may also categorize Incidents according to:

crime type
nature of crime
geography (neighborhood)
time
people involved (suspects/victims).

40

36. Founder of modern concept of problem oriented policing.

Herman Goldstein

41

36. Herman Goldstein suggests police agencies interested in problem oriented policing strategy should shift from...

inward orientation to an outward orientation.

42

36. The occurrence of two or more incidents of a similar nature.

Problem

43

36. Goldstein thus advocates attention to...

effectiveness over efficiency.

44

36. Agencies using the problem oriented policing strategy place less emphasis on statistics and more emphasis on...

Initiatives designed to eliminate problems.

45

37. The SARA problem solving model, police and community members progress through four steps:

1. Scan
2. Analyze
3. Respond
4. Assess

46

36. Inward orientation

Using internal evaluation criteria such as number of sworn officers.

47

39. Two examples of "Community policing" in action involving the use of police officer teams to address issues and help residents resolve issues on a small scale.

"Team policing" and "neighborhood policing"

48

39. Both

"Team policing" and "neighborhood policing"

49

37. One of the most commonly used approaches in problem oriented policing.

SARA problem-solving model.

50

39. Success of these practices hinges on quality of personal encounters between officers and residents.

"Team policing" and "neighborhood policing"

51

39. Where "Team policing" and "neighborhood policing" resulted in little reduction in crime, positive interactions between the police and public still...

markedly decreased residents' fear of crime.

52

43. Intelligence-led policing integrates...

"problem oriented policing" and "zero-tolerance policing"

53

43. Strategy where police continuously analyze incidents in recent past and develop action plans for addressing the problem.

Intelligence-led policing

54

43. Integrates problem oriented policing and zero-tolerance policing through continuous analyze of info about problems and the development of action plans to resolve problems.

Intelligence-led policing

55

43. Used by agencies emphasizing "intelligence led policing strategy" to analyze data.

CompStat
GIS (Geo Info Systems)
Frequent mtgs

56

43. GIS management systems are used to pinpoint responsibility and accountability for police:

efficiency
effectiveness
overall performance

57

43. (GIS) technology Is used to (__), (__), and respond quickly to (__ __) of crime and disorder.

(identify) (analyze) (reported incidents)

58

44. CompStat aims to reduce crime through a specific (__) of (__).

(series) (actions)

59

37. Identify crime and disorder problems in the community.

Scan

60

44. With intelligence led policing two or more incidents of a similar nature can indicate a...

trend toward a major problem.

61

44. Obtaining and processing the information that makes intelligence led policing a possibility is a (__) (__-__) process.

(cyclical) (five-step)

62

44. Step 1: Intelligence led policing.

Identify crime parameters, develop questions, define priorities for collecting raw data and determine how they will be analyzed.

63

44. Step 3:Intelligence led policing

Analyzed data collected and format them as reports, briefings, and other presentations.

64

44. CompStat: Gathering of accurate and timely intelligence is done through:

Direct observation, surveys, and other sources.

65

44. Step 2: Intelligence led policing

Review existing intelligence and collect new (raw) data.

66

44. One great strength of intelligence led policing is the opportunity to:

Intercept troubling trends early.

67

44. Five steps to intelligence led policing.

1: Identify crime parameters.
2: Review existing intelligence.
3: Analyze data.
4: Disseminate intelligence.
5: Gather feedback.

68

44. Can be implemented simultaneously with strategies such as traditional and community policing.

Intelligence-led policing

69

44. Requires daily accountability for demonstrating results, and strong partnerships between the police and the community.

Intelligence-led policing strategy

70

44. The challenge of this strategy are its demands a high level of technological sophistication to gather and analyze detailed, timely, and accurate information.

Intelligence-led policing strategy

71

44. The strategy requires unit commanders must know about event trends emerging during the past few weeks and have a detailed plan for addressing problems.

Intelligence-led policing strategy

72

44. Requires unit commanders be available on a daily basis to present incident data from the previous 24 hours.

Intelligence-led policing strategy

73

45. Agencies adopting strategic policing start by establishing goals informed by crime/disorder trends, directives from a chief or mayor, or community input, then...

develop strategies, influenced by priorities of stakeholders, for achieving goals.

74

44. Step 4: Intelligence led policing

Disseminate intelligence to appropriate individuals for review and storage in database.

75

45. Strategic policing IS an (__) of community policing.

(ingredient)

76

46. Strategic policing CAN be an (__) of community policing.

(element)

77

45. Strategic policing is an ingredient of community policing and seeks to integrate proven private and public-sector organizational mgmt techniques with...

public policing strategy

78

46. Community policing strategy allocates police (__) in accordance with (__) priorities.

(resources) (community)

79

46. This strategy emphasizes high visibility in the neighborhood.

Community policing.

80

46. Emphasizes high visibility in the neighborhood.

Community policing

81

46. Emphasizes rapport with the community.

Community policing

82

46. Emphasizes fewer arrests due to the more proactive (preventive) role of the police.

Community policing

83

46. Emphasizes decentralization of the police organizational command structure.

Community policing

84

46. Calls for visionary incorporation of established police operations into a broader mission focus on peacekeeping and prevention of crime.

Strategic policing

85

46. To use strategic policing, an agency must (__) plans, identify (__ __) objectives and outcome (__), make effective/efficient delivery of services a (__) priority.

(develop) (key performance) (indicators) (top)

86

46. To use Strategic policing an agency must also establish (__ __) with the community to address (__), prosecute criminals, and (__) crime.

(strong alliances) (disorder) (prevent)

87

46. To use strategic policing, the agency must shift from a culture of (__) and (__) compliance to one of self-motivation, (__), and (__) ownership of problems and solutions.

(reaction) (blind) (empowerment) (neighborhood)

88

46. Everything within the agency, objectives, rewards, training, communications, must align behind agreed-upon strategies.

Strategic policing strategy.

89

47. SWOT analysis can help a (__) agency focus on the (__) problem and select the right solution – thus creating (__) for the community it serves.

(policing) (right) (value)

90

47. Through SWOT analysis, agency personnel assess the following:

Strengths.
Weaknesses.
Opportunities.
Threats.

91

47. SWOT category: resources/capabilities, may include community reputation, and it's highly trained personnel.

Strengths

92

47. SWOT category: vulnerabilities, reduced financial resources due to budget cuts or high attrition of personnel.

Weaknesses

93

47. SWOT category: changes outside agency presenting possibilities for enhancing efficiency or effectiveness. ie- new software to track crime data, heightened interest of residents to forge partnerships.

Opportunities

94

47. SWOT category: developments outside agency may impede smooth operation/ability to serve community. ie- City Council voting to reduce authorized personnel.

Threats

95

47. Through SWOT analysis, (__ __) combine strengths and opportunities to move the agency forward in a (__ __).

(police managers) (productive direction)

96

47. SWOT analysis: By recognizing the presence of threats and weaknesses, (__ __) can take steps to (__) or (__) vulnerabilities.

(agency management) (mitigate) (eliminate)

97

47. Suggests police officers are more than first responders and should be evaluated on more than # of arrests or reports.

Strategic policing

98

47. Requires managers and employees to understand strategic plans, agency goals, performance measures, underlying causes of problems, and timeline for implementation of strategic initiatives.

Strategic policing

99

47. Enables agencies to fulfill mission, realize mandates, adapt to changing community concerns thus improving effectiveness.

Strategic policing

100

47. This strategy enhances efficiency by enabling agency to focus limited resources on key priorities-thus extracting more value from those resources.

Strategic policing

101

47. Strategic policing strategy fosters learning by prompting (__ __) to define goals and (__) progress toward those goals.

(agency leaders) (evaluate)

102

48. Strategic policing cons - "They" need to master the skills of strategic planning and thinking.

Strategic policing agency managers and employees.

103

48. Strategic policing cons - Developing the skills for strategic planning and (__) takes (__) and (__)--resources that can be in short supply.

(thinking) (time) (investment)

104

46.To be effective, everything within the agency must align behind agreed-upon strategies.

Strategic policing strategy.