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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (425):
2

266. Leadership theories centering on the leader:

(Trait theory).(Behavior theory) (Personal situational theory) (Interaction expectation theory)

3

266. Leadership theories centering on Followers and situational context:

(Motivation hygiene theory) (Situational theory) (Contingency theory) (path-goal leadership theory)(Meta-leadership theory)

4

266. Leadership theories centering on Leader follower interactions:

(Leader follower exchange theory) (Transactional and transformational theories) (Psychodynamic approach)

5

266. The theory that seeks to identify the individual traits distinguishing leaders from followers.

Trait theory.

6

266. Theory that identifies the behaviors distinguishing leaders who achieve desired results.

Behavior theory.

7

266. This theory represents one of the first attempts to define leadership.

Trait theory.

8

266. Trait theory: In the early 1900s, ___ study great leaders to ___ the individual traits that ___ them and enabled them to ___ others to follow them.

Theorists, identify, distinguished, inspire.

9

266. Theory which identified the following as traits of a leader: popularity, self-confidence, judgment, humor, aggressiveness, desire, adaptability, assertiveness, courage, decisiveness, intelligence, initiative, persistence, and the ability to cooperate.

Trait theory

10

266. Under behavior theory which leaders engage in behaviors that are likely to achieve desired results

Effective leaders.

11

266. Suggest that circumstances can cause an individual to take a leadership role.

Behavior theorists

12

266. Those who study the behavior approach to leadership focus on two general types of behaviors:

– Task behaviors.– Relationship behaviors.

13

266. These behaviors facilitate goal accomplishment.

Task behaviors.

14

266. Which behavior occurs when a command officer directs (orders) a line officer to secure (protect) a crime scene.

Task behavior.

15

266. These behaviors help others develop comfortable feelings about themselves, other people, and the situation.

Relationship behavior

16

266. This behavior occurs when the command officer consults with the line officer about the best way to secure the crime scene.

Relationship behavior.

17

266. These type of leaders combine task and relationship behaviors to influence others to achieve an objective.

Effective leaders.

18

267. Behavior theory has it's shortcomings, specifically, researchers have not established a link between…

Leadership behaviors and outcomes, and have not identified a universal leadership style that could be effective in most situations.

19

267. Behavior theory has been validated by a wide range of studies and broadens scope of leadership research beyond the…

Limitations of trait theory.

20

267. The first theory to address leadership's full complexity.

Personal-Situational Theory

21

267. This theory supposes that a mix of personal characteristics interact with specific conditions in the persons environment to create successful leadership.

Personal-Situational Theory:

22

267. Effectiveness depends on the leader's ability to understand followers and the environment in which the followers function, and to react appropriately as followers and the situation change.

Personal-Situational Theory

23

267. Proposes that leadership is the act of initiating structure, (for accomplishing a task or an approach to resolving problems), that group members support.

Interaction-Expectation Theory

24

267. Members support structure that helps solve problems, conforms to group norms, believe success will result if they follow the leader.

Interaction-Expectation Theory

25

267. Theory proposing which factors increase satisfaction and dissatisfaction among employees.

Motivation-Hygiene Theory

26

267. Theory developed by Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s.

Motivation-Hygiene Theory

27

267. Motivation-Hygiene Theory, Frederick Herzberg conducted studies to determine...

which factors in an employees work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

28

267. Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Herzberg referred to Dissatisfiers (including supervision, working conditions, and salary) as...

Hygiene factors.

29

267. Motivation-Hygiene Theory: According to Hertzberg, thee factors act Independently of each other.

job satisfaction, presumably motivation, and job dissatisfaction

30

267. Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Satisfiers such as achievement recognition and advancement are referred to as...

Motivators

31

268. The theory proposing that different situations demand different styles of leadership.

Situational theory.

32

268. The theory that attempts to match leaders to specific types of situations.

Contingency theory.

33

268. The theory suggesting that a leaders role is to enhance followers' performance by motivating them and by rewarding achievement of goals.

Path-goal theory.

34

268. Over arching leadership framework designed to link organizational units or organizations; attempts to transcend usual organizational confines.

Meta-leadership.

35

268. Herzberg's Motivation hygiene theory: Herzberg maintained that motivators provide satisfaction arising from...

The intrinsic conditions of the job, such as recognition and personal growth.

36

268. Herzberg's Motivation hygiene theory: Hygiene factors do not provide…

Satisfaction, although dissatisfaction results from their absence.

37

268. Herzberg's Motivation hygiene theory: These factors are all extrinsic to…

The work itself.

38

268. Herzberg's Motivation hygiene theory: Basically, positive hygiene factors (such as good working conditions and an attractive salary) are needed to…

Ensure that employees do not become dissatisfied.

39

268. Herzberg's Motivation hygiene theory: Today, most researchers do not view satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors as...

Existing separately.

40

268. Herzberg's Motivation hygiene theory: Further, this theory does not allow for individual differences (for example personality traits) that might...

Affect a person's unique response to a motivating or a hygiene factor.

41

267. Hersey/Blanchard's Situational Theory: Counts as one of the most recognized...

Theories of leadership.

42

267. Hersey/Blanchard's Situational Theory: States different situations demand…

Different styles of leadership.

43

267. Hersey/Blanchard's Situational Theory: To be effective, leaders must adapt their leadership style to...

Specific characteristics of a situation, such as a follower's skill level or degree of motivation.

44

267. Hersey/Blanchard's Situational Theory: Is practical, easily understood, and...

Prescriptive (it tells one what to do) rather than descriptive.

45

268. This theory emphasizes leaders' flexibility, and underscores the importance of adapting to followers' unique needs.

Hersey/Blanchard's Situational Theory:

46

268. Shortcomings of this theory include, few studies have been conducted that justify the assumptions underlying the theory.

Hersey/Blanchard's Situational Theory:

47

268. This theory is similar to situational theory.

Contingency Theory.

48

268. Developed in the 1960s, this theory reinforces the notion that effective leaders demonstrate styles that fit the situation.

Contingency Theory.

49

268. Rather than focusing on a person's ability to adopt a style that fits a situation, contingency theory attempts to...

Match leaders to specific types of situations.

50

268. Research suggests that this theory is a valid and reliable approach to explaining effective leadership.

Contingency Theory.

51

268. Moreover, this theory recognizes that leaders cannot be effective in all situations.

Contingency Theory.

52

268. Its critics maintain this theory does not fully explain why certain leadership styles may be effective in some situations but not others.

Contingency Theory.

53

Critics point out this theory fails to support the notion that leaders can be taught adaptive skills necessary in changing situations.

Contingency Theory.

54

268. This theory suggests that a leader's role is to enhance followers performance by motivating them and by rewarding achievement of goals.

Path-Goal Theory.

55

268. The path-goal approach suggests that leaders should use a style that...

Eliminates barriers to achievement of goals and meets followers'motivational needs.

56

269. These leaders wish to transcend usual organizational confines and influence, motivate, and activate change above and beyond the established lines of their dominion and control.

Meta-Leaders.

57

269. These leaders are driven and motivated by purposes broader than those prescribed by their former rolls.

Meta-leaders.

58

However, meta-leadership theorists tend to define leadership in terms of...

A recognized standard of authority a person holds in a formal role, rather than in informal as well as formal.

59

This theory emerged in the 70s, departs from theories that focused on leaders or on context.

Leader-Follower Exchange Theory.

60

269. These theories focus on leaders.

-Trait Theory.-Styles Approaches.

61

269. These leadership theories focus on context.

Situational or contingency approaches.

62

269. This theory examines the relationships between leaders and followers.

Leader-Follower Exchange Theory.

63

269. Leader-Follower Exchange Theory: Researchers discovered the following two types of relationships:

– In-group relationships.– Out-group relationships.

64

269. Leader-Follower Exchange Theory: These relationships arise from expanded and negotiated role responsibilities.

In group relationships.

65

Leader-Follower Exchange Theory: Followers whose performance goes beyond the expected and who expand the roles with the leader become members of this group.

In-group.

66

269. These relationships result from defined roles such as those found in employment contracts.

Out-group relationships.

67

269. Followers who achieve only what is expected are members of…

The out-group.

68

269. Later research into Leader-Follower Exchange Theory suggested that the quality of the exchange between leaders and followers is related to…

Positive outcomes for leaders, followers, groups, and organizations.

69

268. According to Burns most leadership models propose a...

Transactional Theory (or process) in which leaders and followers make exchanges.

70

268.High quality leader-follower relationships reduce follower attrition and result in more positive:

– Performance evaluations.– Greater commitment to goal achievement.– Better attitudes.– More attention and support from the leader.

71

268. This theory proposes a process through which leaders engage others and create a connection that enhances motivation and morality in themselves as well as followers.

Transformational Theory.

72

268. With this kind of leadership, both leaders and followers raise each other to higher levels of consciousness and satisfaction.

Transactional Theory leadership.

73

268. These leaders possess strong internal values and motivate others to put aside self-interest.

Transactional Theory

74

268. This leadership theory's weaknesses are that it makes vague references to motivation, vision, trust, and nurturing.

Transformational Leadership Theory.

75

289. This theory tends to treat leadership as a personality trait rather than as a behavior that individuals can learn.

Transformational Leadership Theory.

76

268. In practice, this type of leadership can also lead to abuse, if leaders change followers values in a destructive way.

Transformational Leadership

77

268. When this type of leader influences followers to adopt inappropriate values, followers may be steered in the wrong direction.

Transformational Leaders.

78

269.An approach suggesting that leaders are more effective if hey have insight into the psychological makeup of themselves and their followers.

Psychodynamic Approach.

79

270.This approach can trace it's origin to the work of Sigmund Freud in his development of psychoanalysis in the 1930s.

Psychodynamic Approach.

80

270. It represents an approach to leadership rather than a coherent theory, because it adapts ideas from several behavioral theorists, scholars, and practitioners.

Psychodynamic Approach.

81

270. According to this approach, leaders are more effective if they have insight into the psychological makeup of themselves and their followers.

Psychodynamic Approach.

82

270. This approach makes none of the assumptions that underlie trait, behavioral, and situational leadership theories.

Psychodynamic Approach.

83

270. This approach does not assume that a particular personality type is best suited for leadership, nor match leadership styles to followers or particular situations.

Psychodynamic Approach.

84

270. The Psychodynamic Approach emphasizes the importance of leaders' and followers' awareness of their own personality characteristics, and of their...

Understanding of why and how they respond to each other as they do.

85

270. According to Psychodynamic Approach, these leaders work to gain insights into their own tendencies and needs and help followers do the same.

Effective leaders.

86

270. Critics of this approach are uncomfortable with the subjective nature of insight development.

Psychodynamic Approach.

87

270. Critics point out research on this approach relies primarily on clinical observations of psychologists and psychiatrists, whose opinions may be biased in favor of the approach because it focuses on individuals.

Psychodynamic Approach.

88

270. This approach does not account for organizational variables that might influence leaders' and followers' behavior.

Psychodynamic Approach.

89

271. This ability can be measured objectively.

Leadership Skill.

90

271. Someone others wish to follow, rather than someone who simply issues commands or coerces others into action.

A leader.

91

271. Unknown Chinese philosopher statement on leadership.

When the best leader's work is done, the people will say, "We did it ourselves".

92

271. Anyone in police agency can be this regardless of rank, position, or title.

A leader.

93

271. Leadership requires mastery of specific skills, rather than...

Possession of particular qualities (such as inborn personal traits).

94

271. An ability that can be measured objectively; that is, there are clear metrics for assessing results and determining whether a person has exhibited the skill.

A leadership skill.

95

271. Leadership skills can be learned and developed through...

Experience, training, and education.

96

272. What type of skill is demonstrating ethical behavior?

Key leadership skill.

97

272. Few police leadership development programs certified by state commissions on peace officers or colleges focus on:

Ethical leadership development at all ranks, including police recruits.

98

272. We strongly suggest that ethical leadership training and development are essential for all...

Police officers regardless of rank.

99

272. While anyone can become a leader, most studies on leadership skills focus on…

Supervisory level leadership.

100

272. Ortmeir (1996) is believed to be the first study to address...

Leadership skills required of front-line officers.

101

272. The actual study by Ortmeir occurred in 1995, And focused on leadership skills essential for police officers in an environment that emphasizes…

Community participation, engagement, and problem-solving, All of which are important ingredients for effective policing.

102

272. Ortmeier defined leadership as the...

Ability to influence or mobilize individual citizens, groups, businesses, and agencies to collaborate and participate In activities to discover solutions to community problems.

103

272. This require skills beyond those traditionally taught in police academies and college classrooms.

Modern policing.

104

272. Ortmeier grouped the skills his study identified into five major categories.

– Communications and related interpersonal skills.– Motivation.– Problem-solving.– Planning and organizing.– Actuation and implementation.

105

273. 5 skill categories (essential for community policing): Communicating verbally and in writing, listening, and counseling.

Communications and related interpersonal skills category.

106

273. Processing knowledge of different ethnic and racial cultures and demonstrating empathy.

Communications and related interpersonal skills category.

107

Facilitating interaction, maintaining group cohesiveness and member satisfaction, and speaking in public.

Communications and related interpersonal skills category

108

273. Encouraging creativity and innovation, catalyzing proactive behavior in others.

Motivation skills category.

109

273. Building teams and cooperative relationships, demonstrating persistence and consistency, and showing enthusiasm.

Motivation skills category.

110

273. Committing to assignments, recognizing and encouraging other possible leaders, and demonstrating intellectual curiosity.

Motivation skills category.

111

273. Analyzing situations, identifying and evaluating constituents needs, identifying and analyzing problems.

Problem-solving skills category.

112

273. Adapting strategies to situations, mediating and negotiating, and enabling others to attain goals.

Problem-solving skills category.

113

273. Prescribing prioritized actions to solve a problem.

Problem solving skills category.

114

273. Promoting needed change, creating and maintaining a vision, defining objectives and maintaining progress toward them.

Planning and organizing skills category.

115

Prioritizing and assigning tasks, organizing resources.

Planning and organizing skills category.

116

273. Creating and maintaining an environment that encourages open communication.

Planning and organizing skills category.

117

273. Providing for and maintaining group processes, and delegating.

Planning and organizing skills category.

118

273. Translating a Vision into action, completing multiple projects on schedule, and evaluating individual and group goals.

Actuation and implementation skills category.

119

273. Evaluating individual and group goals, representing others' interests and concerns.

Actuation and implementation skills category.

120

273. Understanding and articulating the police agencies impact, learning from mistakes.

Actuation and implementation skills category.

121

274 Ortmeir study: All police officers must listen, understand the issue from residents perspective, and...

reassure residents that action will be taken.

122

274. By acknowledging the presence of a concern or problem, officers forge a connection with community members. And once citizens realize...

Police want to join with them, change can occur.

123

274. These leaders interact daily with other officers, with administrative personnel, and with elected or appointed officials.

Effective police officer leaders.

124

274. These leaders regularly encounter people in the community who are perceived as unofficial leaders and ask for their opinions regarding the agency's performance.

Effective police officer leaders.

125

274. Effective police officer leaders regularly encounter people in the community who are perceived as this kind of leader.

Unofficial leaders.

126

274. Effective police officer leaders asked for "their" opinions regarding the agency's performance.

Unofficial leaders.

127

274. These leaders encourage fellow officers to follow up with concerned community members.

Effective police officer leaders.

128

274. These leaders take a participatory rather than an authoritative approach to establishing and managing interpersonal relationships.

The best police leaders.

129

274. These leaders are empathetic and excel at persuasion and negotiation. All of these abilities hinge on a talent for communication.

The best police leaders.

130

274. Like communication, motivation is a critical skill category for all officers seeking to…

Strengthen their leadership skills.

131

275. What motivates one person to work toward a goal may not motivate another because motivation is a...

Subjective Phenomenon.

132

275. To lead, police officers must understand what...

Motivates others – their subordinates, their superiors, politicians, and community members.

133

275. Clean police officers must avoid trying to motivate through...

Fear and control.

134

275. These leaders embrace the notion that people are motivated by different needs, whether for social connection, achievement, monetary reward, or other value to them.

Great leaders.

135

275. To learn how to identify what most motivates another person, these leaders must become students of human nature.

Aspiring leaders.

136

275. Although leadership and supervision (also called management) are interrelated, they...

Represent very different ways of operating.

137

275. A leader may also be...

A supervisor.

138

275. Not every supervisor is…

A leader.

139

275. Leadership is thus broader than...

Supervision.

140

275. Leadership occurs anytime a person...

Motivates another person or a group to produce change.

141

275. Supervision occurs when someone…

Directs another toward organizational goals.

142

275. Leadership is about…

Creating a better future.

143

275. Supervision is about…

Maintaining order and consistency.

144

275. He innovates.

A leader

145

He is an original.

A leader.

146

275. He develops.

A leader.

147

275. He focuses on people.

A leader.

148

275. He inspires trust.

A leader.

149

He takes a long range view.

A leader.

150

275. He asks what and why.

A leader.

151

275. He keeps an eye on the horizon.

A leader.

152

275. He challenges the status quo.

A leader.

153

275. He is unique.

A leader.

154

275. He does the right thing.

A leader.

155

275. He administers.

A manager.

156

275. He is a copy.

A manager.

157

275. He maintains.

A manager.

158

275. He focuses on systems and structures.

A manager.

159

275. He relies on control.

A manager.

160

275. He takes a short range view.

A manager.

161

275. He asks how and when.

A manager.

162

275. He keeps an eye on the bottom line.

A manager.

163

275. He accepts the status quo.

A manager.

164

275. He is the classic good soldier.

A manager.

165

275. He does things right.

A manager.

166

276. These police personnel are both leaders and supervisors, exhibiting leadership skills and also demonstrating solid supervisory skills.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

167

276. Their value blend of talents includes mentoring and role modeling, crisis management, resource management, and personnel development.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

168

276. They directly oversee the individuals who report to them and may act in a supervisory capacity for anyone who needs guidance.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

169

276. They teach subordinates to complete practical tasks associated with the job.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

170

276. They give directives that others acknowledge and follow.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

171

276. They serve as mentors and role models, so that subordinates seek development opportunities from them rather than from others.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

172

275. A person who exhibits values, attitudes, and behaviors considered desirable in a particular organization.

Role models.

173

276. Through their everyday action on the job, they demonstrate which behaviors, values, and attitudes are positive and appropriate and which should be avoided.

Role models.

174

276. They constitute vital human resources in any organization.

Role models.

175

276. Role models demonstrate behaviors and inspire subordinates and other constituents to...

Grow and contribute to the organization in a meaningful way.

176

276. By acting ethically, influence other personnel to behave ethically.

Role models.

177

276. Role models offset the cynicism and...

"putting out fires" crisis management style that pervade many police organizations.

178

276. Subordinates learn inappropriate behaviors from these poor managers who merely try to get through each day, which leads directly to...

Inadequate protection for citizens.

179

276. One of the most powerful ways to prevent the disasters that can stem from ineffective leadership and pervasive cynicism.

Modeling correct behaviors.

180

276. They also deftly handle crisis.

The police leader-supervisor.

181

276. They may make swift decisions on the street or intervene in conflict between peers, subordinates, or citizens.

The police leader-supervisor.

182

76. They always consider the moral, ethical, and legal implications of any decision.

The police leader-supervisor.

183

276. They function as advisers to others in the agency – whether direct reports, peers, or superiors.

The police leader-supervisor.

184

276. They know how to summon the resources needed to complete the job.

The police leader-supervisor.

185

276. They develop their subordinates, including helping them acquire leadership skills themselves.

The best leader-supervisors.

186

276. They challenge those who report to them to learn new tasks and processes, to reach beyond their job description and find new ways for the agency to accomplish its mission.

The best leader-supervisors.

187

276. They take responsibility for organizing the departmental staff, allocating police vehicles to shifts, and creating career development plans for subordinates.

The best leader-supervisors.

188

277. They take responsibility for implementing succession plans designed position subordinates become supervisors in the future.

The best leader-supervisors.

189

277. Officers and police supervisors should make this valuable combination of skills a high priority, and consider it a crucial part of a police supervisors role.

The art and skill of leadership as it relates to supervision.

190

277. In any police agency the use of these two tools constitute a crucial aspect of leadership.

Authority and power.

191

277. The legitimate right bestowed by an organization on an individual to direct activities or persons.

Authority.

192

277. The ability of an individual to influence others; shaping organization's direction and priorities; and influence situations, affairs, and objects.

Power.

193

277. It is a function of the organization.

Authority.

194

277. It is a capacity of the person.

Power.

195

277. They derive authority from the formal mandates of laws, rules, and organizational directives.

Leaders.

196

277. Authority alone is not sufficient to manage an organization, it must also come with...

Responsibility and accountability.

197

277. The obligation to do what is ethically correct.

Responsibility.

198

277. Being answerable or liable for one's actions or inaction.

Accountability.

199

278. This can also be the formal acknowledgement of power granted by the organization to a command or supervisory officer

Authority.

200

278. Formal authority, even symbolized by a person's title or rank, it's not enough to ensure that an individual be...

Considered a leader.

201

278. Unofficial or informal leaders may emerge in the agency and ultimately exert more influence and power and those with a...

Hi rank, an executive level position, or impressive title.

202

270. Often, such unofficial leaders derive their authority from…

Charisma and from social norms.

203

278. These managers will leverage informal leaders, acknowledging them and enlisting their support.

Wise police managers.

204

278. Five sources of power:

1. Rank.2. Fear.3. Rewards.4. Expertise.5. Charisma.

205

278. This power is Valuable because timely and personal recognition engenders a sense of loyalty in others and a willingness to follow.

Rewards-based power.

206

278. However this power is subject to abuse if the person with the power discriminates against a person or a group.

Rewards-based power.

207

279. These leaders may appear as saviors to an organization, especially during times of uncertainty and confusion.

Charismatic leaders.

208

279. These leaders use their power to inspire followers to new heights of performance on appropriate goals, are humble rather than highly charismatic, and have a strong will.

True leaders.

209

279. In a police agency, leaders are particularly effective when they have…

Sanctioned authority and power.

210

279. Officers who have unsanctioned authority and abuse power may engage and activities that...

Support their own personal interests at the expense of their agency's priorities.

211

279. This officer may fail to discipline, reward, or adequately direct subordinates, Wanting to be regarded as a friend rather than a superior.

Sanctioned authority but limited degree of power.

212

272. What type of skill is demonstrating ethical behavior?

Key leadership skill.

213

272. Few police leadership development programs certified by state commissions on peace officers or colleges focus on:

Ethical leadership development at all ranks, including police recruits.

214

272. We strongly suggest that ethical leadership training and development are essential for all...

Police officers regardless of rank.

215

272. While anyone can become a leader, most studies on leadership skills focus on…

Supervisory level leadership.

216

272. Ortmeir (1996) is believed to be the first study to address...

Leadership skills required of front-line officers.

217

272. The actual study by Ortmeir occurred in 1995, And focused on leadership skills essential for police officers in an environment that emphasizes…

Community participation, engagement, and problem-solving, All of which are important ingredients for effective policing.

218

272. Ortmeier defined leadership as the...

Ability to influence or mobilize individual citizens, groups, businesses, and agencies to collaborate and participate In activities to discover solutions to community problems.

219

272. This require skills beyond those traditionally taught in police academies and college classrooms.

Modern policing.

220

272. Ortmeier grouped the skills his study identified into five major categories.

– Communications and related interpersonal skills.– Motivation.– Problem-solving.– Planning and organizing.– Actuation and implementation.

221

273. 5 skill categories (essential for community policing): Communicating verbally and in writing, listening, and counseling.

Communications and related interpersonal skills category.

222

273. Processing knowledge of different ethnic and racial cultures and demonstrating empathy.

Communications and related interpersonal skills category.

223

Facilitating interaction, maintaining group cohesiveness and member satisfaction, and speaking in public.

Communications and related interpersonal skills category

224

273. Encouraging creativity and innovation, catalyzing proactive behavior in others.

Motivation skills category.

225

273. Building teams and cooperative relationships, demonstrating persistence and consistency, and showing enthusiasm.

Motivation skills category.

226

273. Committing to assignments, recognizing and encouraging other possible leaders, and demonstrating intellectual curiosity.

Motivation skills category.

227

273. Analyzing situations, identifying and evaluating constituents needs, identifying and analyzing problems.

Problem-solving skills category.

228

273. Adapting strategies to situations, mediating and negotiating, and enabling others to attain goals.

Problem-solving skills category.

229

273. Prescribing prioritized actions to solve a problem.

Problem solving skills category.

230

273. Promoting needed change, creating and maintaining a vision, defining objectives and maintaining progress toward them.

Planning and organizing skills category.

231

Prioritizing and assigning tasks, organizing resources.

Planning and organizing skills category.

232

273. Creating and maintaining an environment that encourages open communication.

Planning and organizing skills category.

233

273. Providing for and maintaining group processes, and delegating.

Planning and organizing skills category.

234

273. Translating a Vision into action, completing multiple projects on schedule, and evaluating individual and group goals.

Actuation and implementation skills category.

235

273. Evaluating individual and group goals, representing others' interests and concerns.

Actuation and implementation skills category.

236

273. Understanding and articulating the police agencies impact, learning from mistakes.

Actuation and implementation skills category.

237

274 Ortmeir study: All police officers must listen, understand the issue from residents perspective, and...

reassure residents that action will be taken.

238

274. By acknowledging the presence of a concern or problem, officers forge a connection with community members. And once citizens realize...

Police want to join with them, change can occur.

239

274. These leaders interact daily with other officers, with administrative personnel, and with elected or appointed officials.

Effective police officer leaders.

240

274. These leaders regularly encounter people in the community who are perceived as unofficial leaders and ask for their opinions regarding the agency's performance.

Effective police officer leaders.

241

274. Effective police officer leaders regularly encounter people in the community who are perceived as this kind of leader.

Unofficial leaders.

242

274. Effective police officer leaders asked for "their" opinions regarding the agency's performance.

Unofficial leaders.

243

274. These leaders encourage fellow officers to follow up with concerned community members.

Effective police officer leaders.

244

274. These leaders take a participatory rather than an authoritative approach to establishing and managing interpersonal relationships.

The best police leaders.

245

274. These leaders are empathetic and excel at persuasion and negotiation. All of these abilities hinge on a talent for communication.

The best police leaders.

246

274. Like communication, motivation is a critical skill category for all officers seeking to…

Strengthen their leadership skills.

247

275. What motivates one person to work toward a goal may not motivate another because motivation is a...

Subjective Phenomenon.

248

275. To lead, police officers must understand what...

Motivates others – their subordinates, their superiors, politicians, and community members.

249

275. Clean police officers must avoid trying to motivate through...

Fear and control.

250

275. These leaders embrace the notion that people are motivated by different needs, whether for social connection, achievement, monetary reward, or other value to them.

Great leaders.

251

275. To learn how to identify what most motivates another person, these leaders must become students of human nature.

Aspiring leaders.

252

275. Although leadership and supervision (also called management) are interrelated, they...

Represent very different ways of operating.

253

275. A leader may also be...

A supervisor.

254

275. Not every supervisor is…

A leader.

255

275. Leadership is thus broader than...

Supervision.

256

275. Leadership occurs anytime a person...

Motivates another person or a group to produce change.

257

275. Supervision occurs when someone…

Directs another toward organizational goals.

258

275. Leadership is about…

Creating a better future.

259

275. Supervision is about…

Maintaining order and consistency.

260

275. He innovates.

A leader

261

He is an original.

A leader.

262

275. He develops.

A leader.

263

275. He focuses on people.

A leader.

264

275. He inspires trust.

A leader.

265

He takes a long range view.

A leader.

266

275. He asks what and why.

A leader.

267

275. He keeps an eye on the horizon.

A leader.

268

275. He challenges the status quo.

A leader.

269

275. He is unique.

A leader.

270

275. He does the right thing.

A leader.

271

275. He administers.

A manager.

272

275. He is a copy.

A manager.

273

275. He maintains.

A manager.

274

275. He focuses on systems and structures.

A manager.

275

275. He relies on control.

A manager.

276

275. He takes a short range view.

A manager.

277

275. He asks how and when.

A manager.

278

275. He keeps an eye on the bottom line.

A manager.

279

275. He accepts the status quo.

A manager.

280

275. He is the classic good soldier.

A manager.

281

275. He does things right.

A manager.

282

276. These police personnel are both leaders and supervisors, exhibiting leadership skills and also demonstrating solid supervisory skills.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

283

276. Their value blend of talents includes mentoring and role modeling, crisis management, resource management, and personnel development.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

284

276. They directly oversee the individuals who report to them and may act in a supervisory capacity for anyone who needs guidance.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

285

276. They teach subordinates to complete practical tasks associated with the job.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

286

276. They give directives that others acknowledge and follow.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

287

276. They serve as mentors and role models, so that subordinates seek development opportunities from them rather than from others.

The Police Leader-Supervisor.

288

275. A person who exhibits values, attitudes, and behaviors considered desirable in a particular organization.

Role models.

289

276. Through their everyday action on the job, they demonstrate which behaviors, values, and attitudes are positive and appropriate and which should be avoided.

Role models.

290

276. They constitute vital human resources in any organization.

Role models.

291

276. Role models demonstrate behaviors and inspire subordinates and other constituents to...

Grow and contribute to the organization in a meaningful way.

292

276. By acting ethically, influence other personnel to behave ethically.

Role models.

293

276. Role models offset the cynicism and...

"putting out fires" crisis management style that pervade many police organizations.

294

276. Subordinates learn inappropriate behaviors from these poor managers who merely try to get through each day, which leads directly to...

Inadequate protection for citizens.

295

276. One of the most powerful ways to prevent the disasters that can stem from ineffective leadership and pervasive cynicism.

Modeling correct behaviors.

296

276. They also deftly handle crisis.

The police leader-supervisor.

297

276. They may make swift decisions on the street or intervene in conflict between peers, subordinates, or citizens.

The police leader-supervisor.

298

76. They always consider the moral, ethical, and legal implications of any decision.

The police leader-supervisor.

299

276. They function as advisers to others in the agency – whether direct reports, peers, or superiors.

The police leader-supervisor.

300

276. They know how to summon the resources needed to complete the job.

The police leader-supervisor.

301

276. They develop their subordinates, including helping them acquire leadership skills themselves.

The best leader-supervisors.

302

276. They challenge those who report to them to learn new tasks and processes, to reach beyond their job description and find new ways for the agency to accomplish its mission.

The best leader-supervisors.

303

276. They take responsibility for organizing the departmental staff, allocating police vehicles to shifts, and creating career development plans for subordinates.

The best leader-supervisors.

304

277. They take responsibility for implementing succession plans designed position subordinates become supervisors in the future.

The best leader-supervisors.

305

277. Officers and police supervisors should make this valuable combination of skills a high priority, and consider it a crucial part of a police supervisors role.

The art and skill of leadership as it relates to supervision.

306

277. In any police agency the use of these two tools constitute a crucial aspect of leadership.

Authority and power.

307

277. The legitimate right bestowed by an organization on an individual to direct activities or persons.

Authority.

308

277. The ability of an individual to influence others; shaping organization's direction and priorities; and influence situations, affairs, and objects.

Power.

309

277. It is a function of the organization.

Authority.

310

277. It is a capacity of the person.

Power.

311

277. They derive authority from the formal mandates of laws, rules, and organizational directives.

Leaders.

312

277. Authority alone is not sufficient to manage an organization, it must also come with...

Responsibility and accountability.

313

277. The obligation to do what is ethically correct.

Responsibility.

314

277. Being answerable or liable for one's actions or inaction.

Accountability.

315

278. This can also be the formal acknowledgement of power granted by the organization to a command or supervisory officer

Authority.

316

278. Formal authority, even symbolized by a person's title or rank, it's not enough to ensure that an individual be...

Considered a leader.

317

278. Unofficial or informal leaders may emerge in the agency and ultimately exert more influence and power and those with a...

Hi rank, an executive level position, or impressive title.

318

270. Often, such unofficial leaders derive their authority from…

Charisma and from social norms.

319

278. These managers will leverage informal leaders, acknowledging them and enlisting their support.

Wise police managers.

320

278. Five sources of power:

1. Rank.2. Fear.3. Rewards.4. Expertise.5. Charisma.

321

278. This power is Valuable because timely and personal recognition engenders a sense of loyalty in others and a willingness to follow.

Rewards-based power.

322

278. However this power is subject to abuse if the person with the power discriminates against a person or a group.

Rewards-based power.

323

279. These leaders may appear as saviors to an organization, especially during times of uncertainty and confusion.

Charismatic leaders.

324

279. These leaders use their power to inspire followers to new heights of performance on appropriate goals, are humble rather than highly charismatic, and have a strong will.

True leaders.

325

279. In a police agency, leaders are particularly effective when they have…

Sanctioned authority and power.

326

279. Officers who have unsanctioned authority and abuse power may engage and activities that...

Support their own personal interests at the expense of their agency's priorities.

327

279. This officer may fail to discipline, reward, or adequately direct subordinates, Wanting to be regarded as a friend rather than a superior.

Sanctioned authority but limited degree of power.

328

280. An individual who lacks authority, power, and cannot influence others owing to the lack of position or special circumstances will…

Likely disappear within the organizational structure.

329

280. Leadership styles derive from the practice of...

Leadership skills and may reflect several leadership theories.

330

280. A PARTICULAR Leadership style derives from how a leader...

Communicates and acts to influence followers to give their best on the job.

331

280. Effective leaders adapt their style as needed to get ___ ___ from their followers.

Optimal results.

332

280. In a real situation the style or integration of styles of leadership selected will depend on the…

The circumstances surrounding the situation.

333

280. Abraham Maslow's framework proposing five needs that human beings attempt to meet in specific sequence.

Hierarchy of needs model.

334

280. Hierarchy of five needs in order:

1. Physiological.2. Security.3. Affiliation.4. Esteem.5. Self-actualization.

335

These leaders attempt to determine if a subordinate is struggling economically and arrive at solutions.

Effective leaders.

336

281. For subordinates requiring recognition and personal achievement these leaders can assign projects that present challenges.

Leader-supervisors.

337

281. For subordinates who are at self actualization level, these leaders can offer assistance with promotion and transfers to provide professional growth.

Police leader-supervisors.

338

281. These officers enrich the community, become role models, help ensure their own safety, and encourage citizen cooperation with the police.

Officers who demonstrate respectful behavior.

339

281. Clay Alderfer's framework proposing that human beings need elements for physical survival, relatedness, and personal growth.

ERG theory.

340

281. Clay Alderfer's model of needs proposes three categories of need:

– Existence.– Relatedness.– Growth.

341

281. In what is known as Alderfer's ERG theory, existence needs are for...

Elements contributing to physical well being. (Water, food, shelter)

342

281. Relatedness refers to desires to establish and maintain…

Good interpersonal bonds.

343

281. Growth needs include the desire for…

Creativity, productivity, and personal development.

344

281. Alderfer's model contains a dimension called the…

Frustration-regression hypothesis.

345

281. This hypothesis suggests when people encounter obstacles while seeking to meet higher needs, they refocus on lower needs.

Frustration-regression hypothesis.

346

281. ERG Theory: Obstacles restrict a persons…

Productivity and growth.

347

281. ERG theory-To support followers productivity and growth, Leaders should strive to identify and remove...

Obstacles to achieving higher-level needs.

348

282. David McClelland's framework suggesting that human beings have 3 key needs: affiliation, achievement, and power.

Learned needs theory.

349

282. Expectancy Theory.: Victor Vroom's framework holding that people will be motivated to deliver their best on the job if they believe a...

Specific level of performance will lead to an outcome that they value highly.

350

282. Police leadership style from David McClelland's learned needs theory: ___ ___ ___ strive to recognize and balance followers' conflicting motives.

Police leader supervisors.

351

Learned needs theory: If more than one motive dominates the personality, conflict between the motives can occur resulting in...

Frustration, leading to poor self-esteem and low productivity.

352

282. Vroom's expectancy theory Leadership style: Police leaders identify outcomes that followers and community residents truly value and encourage…

The delivery of job performance that will produce those outcomes.

353

283. Model describing command and control management style in an organization.

McGregor's theory X

354

283. Description of a motivational management style in organizations.

McGregors theory Y.

355

283. This theory manifests as a command-and-control management style common in police environments.

McGregors theory X.

356

283. The average human has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.

McGregors theory X assumption.

357

283. Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment before they put forth effort towards achieving objectives.

McGregor's Theory X assumption.

358

283. People are self-centered, prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relatively little ambition, and want security above all.

McGregor's Theory X assumption.

359

283. McGregor suggested that Theory X supervisors fail to recognize critical factors associated with…

Motivation and thus are not the most effective leaders.

360

283. McGregor proposed an alternative ___ _ which he maintained could help supervisors lead more Skillfully.

Theory Y.

361

284. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work comes as naturally to people as play or rest.

Assumption made by leaders (supervisors) who subscribe to Theory Y.

362

284. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means to elicit the effort necessary to reach objectives.

Assumption made by leaders (supervisors) who subscribe to Theory Y.

363

284. People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.

Assumption made by leaders (supervisors) who subscribe to Theory Y.

364

284. The right rewards can motivate people to work toward a particular achievement.

Assumption made by leaders (supervisors) who subscribe to Theory Y.

365

284. Under proper conditions, people learn to accept as well as seek responsibility.

Assumption made by leaders (supervisors) who subscribe to Theory Y.

366

284. Most people have the capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the search for solutions to problems.

Assumption made by leaders (supervisors) who subscribe to Theory Y.

367

283. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potential of the average human being are only partially recognize.

Assumption made by leaders (supervisors) who subscribe to Theory Y.

368

284. Theory Z is an adaption of Theory Y proposed by…

William Ouchi.

369

284. Leadership style that advocates trusting followers and creating an environment in which followers consider themselves an integral part of the group or organization.

Ouchi's Theory Z.

370

284. According to this theory, trust promotes increased productivity and goal achievement.

Ouchi's Theory Z.

371

284. Even if they work in an agency characterized by Theory X leadership overall, police personnel can adopt...

Theory Y or Theory Z leadership style within their sphere of influence.

372

24. Police personnel, to demonstrate Theory Y leadership, can encourage peers and subordinates to pursue…

Golds that enrich the operational unit or agency.

373

284. They can make the transition to Theory Z by showing that they trust followers to have good intentions and the skills needed to solve problems.

Managers demonstrating Theory Y leadership.

374

284. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton's model identifying five leadership styles that vary in concern for people and concern for productivity.

Managerial grid.

375

284. A leadership style drawn from the managerial grid later renamed…

The leadership grid.

376

284. Each axis on the managerial grid has a scale of...

1 to 10, with 1being the lowest and 10 being the highest.

377

284. Each leadership style is positioned on the managerial grid according to…

Where it rates on the scale.

378

24. Managerial grid: five leadership styles.

– Impoverished style.– Country club style.– Middle-of-the-road style. – Produce or perish style.– Team style.

379

284. Managerial grid: the impoverished managerial style demonstrates…

Low concern for people and production.

380

284. Managerial grid: Managers utilizing this style exert minimal effort and seek to maintain the status quo.

The impoverished managerial style.

381

284. Managers utilizing this style place a high priority on their own personal security within the organization.

The impoverished managerial style.

382

284. Managerial grid: through the country club style, managers demonstrate…

Hi concern for people but low concern for production.

383

285. Managerial grid: Through the country club style, managers try to create an atmosphere of...

High morale and loyalty and hope that their subordinates will perform at a high-level without further involvement from them.

384

285. Managerial grid: Low concern for people and high concern for production characterizes this management style.

Produce or parish management style.

385

285. Managerial grid: Managers practicing the style use coercion and rule enforcement to achieve high production.

Produce or parish management style.

386

285. Managerial grid: This style strongly resembles Theory X behavior as defined by McGregor.

Produce or perish management style.

387

285. Managerial grid: Manager strive to balance follower needs with a concern for production.

Middle-of-the-road style.

388

285. Managerial grid: They try to maintain employee morale at a level just high enough to ensure that minimal performance goals are met.

Middle of the road style managers.

389

285. Managerial grid: Through the team style, managers demonstrate high concern for people as well as production by…

Fostering inclusion, agreed-upon goals, and commitment among members of the organization.

390

285. Managerial grid: Blake and Mouton saw this as the optimal management style and it is consistent with McGregor's theory Y.

Team style.

391

285. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard's model suggesting four leadership styles.

Situational leadership model.

392

Situational leadership model: Four leadership styles:

1. Delegating.2. Supportive.3. Selling.4. Telling.

393

285. Some leaders adapt their style based on followers readiness – that is, their level of…

Skill, experience, and motivation.

394

285. This approach echoes the work of Paul Hersey and Ken. Blanchard, who created the situational leadership model.

Adapting to followers readiness.

395

285. With followers that are very ready(R4), (mature, competent, and motivated) leaders might elect to use the...

Delegating style, giving followers responsibility for taking on tasks.

396

285. Situational leadership model: Followers who are less ready (R3), lack confidence in their abilities or experience, leaders might use...

The supportive style (S2) to encourage, assist, and maintain communication with these followers.

397

286. Situational leadership model: With followers who are even less ready (R2), (confused, unmotivated, or skeptical), leaders adopt...

(Support S3) Selling style, Providing some direction, encouraging communication, building confidence, and motivating followers.

398

286. Situational leadership model: Followers not ready at all (R1), (no experience, no knowledge), leaders might select the…

Telling style (S4), (Supplying clear and specific instructions)

399

285. Victor Vroom's the model postulating that time constraints drive a leaders decision-making process.

Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model.

400

287. This model identifies contingency variables (team support, goal sharing, likelihood of commitment, and significance of a decision) that a leader should consider in leadership style.

Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model.

401

287. Victor Vroom created a Windows-based computer program that enables…

Supervisors to record the strength of presence of each contingency variable in a given situation.

402

287. This model identifies five leadership styles leaders can select from, depending on how strongly present the contingency variables are.

Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model.

403

287. Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model Five leadership styles:

1. Decide.2. Consult Individually.3. Consult team.4. Facilitate.5. Delegate.

404

287. Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model: The leader decides the best course of action and directs followers.

Decide; leadership style.

405

287. Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model: The leader makes a decision after consulting with followers individually.

Consult individually: leadership style.

406

287. Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model: The leader makes a decision after holding an open meeting with all followers.

Consult team: leadership style.

407

287. Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model: The leader facilitates problem-solving and decision-making by building consensus for a potential course of action within the team.

Facilitate: leadership style.

408

287. Vroom-Jago Time-Drive Leadership Model: Leader allows followers to arrive at a decision within limits prescribed by the leader.

Delegate: leadership style.

409

287. Owing to the complexity of the Vroom-Jago model, it works best when a police organization is trying to…

Drive massive change or experiencing a problem the resolution of which requires extensive analysis and teamwork.

410

288. Framework suggesting followers will be motivated to give their best if they believe they're capable of the tasks assigned, their efforts will produce certain results, and rewards for completing tasks are worthwhile.

R.J. House's Path Goal Motivational Leadership Model.

411

288. This model calls for tapping to followers level of motivation in determining a leadership style.

R.J. House's Path Goal Motivational Leadership Model.

412

288. The leader-manager's challenge is to demonstrate the behaviors that best motivate a particular follower to accomplish a specific goal.

R.J. House's Path Goal Motivational Leadership Model.

413

288. R.J. House's Path Goal Motivational Leadership Model Identifies eight possible behaviors:

1. Directive.2. Supportive.3. Participative.4. Achievement oriented.5. Work facilitation.6. Group-oriented decision processes.7. Work-group representation of stakeholders and networking.8. Leadership behaviors based on organizational values.

414

288. The Path-Goal Motivational Leadership Model Reminds leaders/managers that their central purpose is to…

Motivate and assist followers with goal achievement in the most efficient manner possible.

415

289. This concept states some leaders adopt a style that emphasizes sensitivity, awareness, and empathy.

Robert Greenleaf's Servant leadership concept.

416

289. Robert Greenleaf's Servant leadership concept Was introduced in 1970 in his essay titled…

"The servant as leader"

417

289. Approach to leadership emphasizing sensitivity, awareness, and empathy toward followers.

Robert Greenleaf's Servant leadership concept.

418

289. More than a theory, the concept of the ___ ___ ___ is a way of life that encourages management to discover how they can best serve the people they lead.

Leader as servant.

419

289. This approach to leadership returns humanity to the workplace by assuming a symbiotic relationship between worker and supervisor.

Robert Greenleaf's Servant leadership concept.

420

289. This concept blurs the line between leader and follower, and requires both to hold themselves and one another to a higher standard of behavior and understanding.

Robert Greenleaf's Servant leadership concept.

421

289. Leadership concept proposing that leaders channel ambition toward building a better organization rather than promoting themselves and their personal agendas.

Jim Collin's Level 5 leadership concept:

422

289. Police leaders adopting a style that emphasizes the organization's interest over their own interests are drawing from...

Jim Collin's Level 5 leadership concept:

423

290. These leaders are humble; they credit their organization's success to factors other than themselves, but take responsibility for poor results.

Level 5 leaders

424

290. Though modest, these leaders are driven to produce long-lasting change.

Level 5 Leaders.

425

290. These leaders groom peers and subordinates for leadership, ensuring the organization's future success.

Level 5 Leaders.

426

290. Although these leaders may not occupy the spotlight, they exist in almost every organization.

Level 5 Leaders.