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Flashcards in Chapter 04 Deck (107):
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92. Police agencies use several types of plans that we can think of as falling into the major categories of...

non-strategic
strategic

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92. Such plans are intended to handle a police agency’s day-to-day responsibilities and are usually developed by and for specific functions within the agency.

Nonstrategic plans

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92. Nonstrategic plan types:

single-use, repeat-use, tactical, operational, and contingency.

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92. A plan for a one-time event or special time event or special circumstance.

Single-use plan

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92. A plan that may be replicated for similar events or tactical situations.

Repeat-use plan

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92. A plan for special events, unique or extraordinary circumstances, or intra-agency or interagency operational needs.

Tactical plan

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92. A plan delineating functional activities and agency change processes. This plan drives an entire agency or units within an agency.

Operational plan

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92. A plan activated during serious emergencies, critical events, or disasters that affect the agency and demand immediate and/or prolonged response.

Contingency plan

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93. Long-term courses of action intended to apply to the entire police organization.

Strategic plans

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93. What types of plans are the result of a more complex and lengthier process?

Strategic Plans

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94. Two especially important planning approaches.

CPTED and CompStat

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94. What does CPTED stand for?

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

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94. Define CPTED.

The process of deciding how to construct or modify the physical environment to deter or discourage criminal activity.

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95. Four Strategies at the core of CPTED.

Natural Surveillance.
Territorial Reinforcement.
Natural access control.
Target hardening.

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95. What does 'Natural surveillance' refer to?

Use of physical features that increase visibility IN the area

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95. What CPTED planning strategy emphasizing use of physical characteristics to differentiate private and public areas, and ownership of private places while discouraging encroachment?

Territorial reinforcement

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96. CPTED planning strategy that focuses on ensuring that streets and sidewalks are in full view of the community.

Natural access control

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96. CPTED planning strategy using hardware, lighting and other elements to make a home or business less vulnerable to physical intrusion.

Target hardening

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96. What is one important benefit of CPTED as a type of planning?

Promotes community cohesion

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96. A limitation in executing CPTED.

Can be expensive

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96. What policing approach involves generation of as much real-time data as possible AND frequent evaluation of data to develop strategies to reduce crime quickly and effectively?

CompStat

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96. A key element of CompStat approach?

Frequent evaluation of the intelligence collected.

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96. A key element of CompStat is frequent evaluation of the intelligence collected so police can develop plans for for what?

Moving quickly and effectively to reduce crime.

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96. How can Police Agencies deploy personnel and resources rapidly to areas where crimes are occurring?

By gathering real-time information.

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96. The additional vital elements of CompStat other than frequent evaluation of intelligence.

Relentless follow-up and assessment.

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98. All planning processes can be organized into these three essential steps.

1. Assessing needs and risks.
2. Developing alt courses of action.
3. Selecting a course of action

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98. The process an org uses to determine if a need (or problem) exists and it can be addressed by a course of action.

Needs assessment

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99. Agency leaders might use a needs assessment to determine whether managers and officers must strengthen particular .

KSAs (knowledge, skills, abilities)

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99. Process of visually displaying specific locations, addresses or areas of concern.

Community mapping

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99. Crime analysis is an (__) process used to (__) current and (__) future quality-of-life concerns, crime (__), or (__).

(analytical) (define) (predict) (patterns) (trends)

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99. Police agencies can use (GIS) technology, during a needs assessment, to display...

crime categories, patterns, or trends

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99. Often used in conjunction with various policing strategies and other databases that become part of the assessment process. (such as housing patterns and vacant properties).

Community Mapping or Mapping

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99. School, business, and parks locations, as well as census maps, are overlaid to produce comprehensive view of problems associated with criminal activity in the area.

Community Mapping

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95. What has proved to be a potent weapon in CPTED?

Technology

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99. Crime analysts are valued specialists who use this tool.

Crime analysis

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99. Agencies use of various databases and to identify crime patterns/trends to deploy officers and prevent/disrupt crime patterns.

Crime analysis

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99. Might suggest the need for a plan to bring down the rates.

Review of crime statistics as part of needs assessment determining a problem of rising crime rates

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99. The methods agency leaders can use to make a needs assessment of manager/officer KSAs.

• casual conversations
• Interviews
• surveys

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100. Police agencies face numerous types of risks, including the following:

1. Internal org risks
2. External risks
3. Neighborhood risks

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100. Undesirable circumstance that hasn't occurred but a police agency should identify and develop plans for mitigating.

Risk

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100. Type of risk: Computer network breakdowns or the loss of valued employees to rival agencies

Internal organization risks

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100. Type of risk: Damaged police vehicles from pursuits or damaged facilities from natural disasters.

External risks.

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100. Type of risk: Reductions in quality of life/neighborhood cohesion and increased crime rates.

Neighborhood risks

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100. An agency conducts a risk assessment to determine:

1. Whether a known or foreseeable threat exists.
2. How likely it is the threat will materialize.
3. How severe the consequences would be if it did.

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100. Highly probable risks that would bring the worst consequences, merit a...

plan for mitigation.

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100. What can police agencies create to depict their beliefs about how particular risks stack up in terms of probability and severity.

Risk assessment matrix.

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101. Can be used to determine if a large crowd may require additional police resources.

Risk assessment

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101. After agency managers conduct needs and risks assessments, they develop alternative courses of action for meeting the needs or mitigating the risks they identified.

Step 2: Developing alternative courses of action.

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101. To develop alternative courses of action, managers consider:

• fiscal, physical, and personnel resources.
• activities needed to execute plans.
• strategy for managing resistance to plans.
• Ideas for building support for potential courses of action.

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101. For each alternative course of action, managers evaluate:

• Probable consequences.
• Desirable consequences.
• Undesirable consequences.

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101. What do managers also prepare for each tentative action plan?

Budget and a cost—benefit analysis

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102. Using this method, the meeting leader encourages participants to continue offering ideas w/out judgement, until the “well” runs dry, in order to generate ideas for solutions.

brainstorming

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102. The result of brainstorming.

a long list of possible courses of action.

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103. The final step in the planning process by which a plan is decided on from the alternatives developed in Step 2.

Step 3: Selecting a course of action.

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103. To choose the final plan, police managers consider several criteria—such as which plan:

• best accommodates agcy’s resources?
• plays to the agcy’s strengths?
• garners most supp from stkhldrs?.
• gens most enduring pos results?

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103. During this step, stakeholder's should be invited to contribute to discussions to secure their buy-in for the final choice.

Step 3: Selecting a course of action.

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99. Generates information that guides the actions an agency might take to achieve a stated goal.

Needs assessment

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100. In assessing risks, the police as leaders consider these two criteria.

1. Probability a undesirable circumstance will occur.
2. The magnitude of consequences if it does.

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103. So stakeholders can see how the plan supports the agency’s mission, police personnel should clearly state the...

GOALS of each proposed action plan.

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104. Different approaches police managers may take in choosing a final action plan.

1. Accommodating stkhldr priorities.
2. Making innov chg.
3. Using intuition.
4. Clarifying decision roles.

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104. Approach used when agcy mgrs make the decision due to pressure to appease the loudest/most persistent stkhldr capturing the most attention.

Accommodating stakeholder priorities.

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104. Decision making approach used when agency managers select a final plan that includes officers’ use of a Taser because doesn't cause injury so reduces liability claims against police.

Making innovative change.

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103. Selecting a course of action from a set of alternatives requires...

strong decision- making competence (a leadership skill).

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104. This “sixth sense” approach hinges on his ability...

to blend information from both personal and outside sources while arriving at a decision.

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104. With this approach, mgrs define what role each participant in the decision will play in selecting final plan of action.

Clarifying decision roles.

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104. Will everyone involved in selecting a final plan have a say in the ultimate decision or will the leader consult and solicit opinions but make the final choice alone?

Clarifying decision roles.

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104. Approach for selecting final plan of action when managers draw on past experiences, expertise, knowledge, and intuitive sense.

Using intuition

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104. The “sixth sense” approach for selecting final plan of action.

Using intuition

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92. Provide policing services at unique events.

Single-use plan

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92. Deal with a one-time community problem.

Single-use plan

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92. Handle a circumstance that may or may not recur.

Single-use plan

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92. To provide policing services for a one-time outdoor concert held in town, an agency develops a plan stipulating how officers will control the crowd and provide security for performers.

Single-use plan

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92.When residents of a specific neighborhood complain about cars speeding on their streets, police create a plan for stopping cars to verify license and registration, discouraging people from speeding through the area.

Repeat-use plan

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92. The agency duplicates this same tactic in other neighborhoods within the community.

Repeat-use plan

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92. Develop tactics that can be used in multiple similar settings.

Repeat-use plan

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92. Manage recurring events (such as charity drives or holiday celebrations) where large numbers of people will congregate.

Repeat-use plan

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92. Deal with special crime issues, such as persistent and numerous shots-fired calls, robberies, rapes, and hostage situations.

Tactical plan

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92. A police agency develops a plan stipulating when and how to activate a SWAT or other emergency team in a hostage situation so as to contain and end the emergency.

Tactical plan

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92. Drive change in an entire police agency or specific units within the agency.

Operational plan

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92. An agency that decides to set up a canine unit creates a plan for selecting human and canine members of the unit, as well as training, certifying, and deploying them.

Operational plan

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92. Activate during emergencies, critical events, or disasters that affect the agency and demand immediate and prolonged response.

Contingency plan

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92. An agency develops plans delineating procedures tor responding to terrorist attacks and natural disasters (hurricanes, tornadoes, floods) to which the area is particularly vulnerable.

Contingency plan

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93. High-level overarching goals:

• Enhancing police professionalism• fighting crime• improving citizen/community satisfaction with quality of life and policing services

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93. Police managers take into account the agency’s values, vision, and mission, as well as the priorities of stakeholders (community members and local business leaders).To develop this category of plans.

Strategic plans

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94. CPTED: By integrating certain elements into physical places during construction, communities can lower the incidence of crime and...

increase community cohesion—resulting in higher quality of life for residents.

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94. An outgrowth of overall thinking about how to keep crime from occurring in the first place.

CPTED - Crime Prevention through environmental design.

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94. CPTED: Hinges on collaboration among...

police, community residents, business leaders, and local governing bodies.

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Most crime prevention results a web of security/safety precautions embodied in these institutional settings of daily life:

• Families.• Communities.• Schools.• Workplaces.• Legal institutions associated with criminal justice.

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95. CPTED strategy: doors and windows facing streets and parking areas

Natural surveillance

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95. CPTED strategy: night-time lighting.

Natural surveillance

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95. CPTED strategy: a willingness among residents to keep their window coverings open to observe activity in the area.

Natural surveillance

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95. CPTED strategy: emphasizes the use of physical characteristics to differentiate private and public spaces.

Territorial reinforcement

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95. CPTED strategy: the use of physical characteristics to emphasize the ownership of private places while discouraging encroachment.

Territorial reinforcement

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95. CPTED strategy: Fences, pavement designs, gates, and landscape architecture can all be used.

Territorial reinforcement

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95. CPTED strategy: focuses on ensuring that streets and sidewalks are in full view of the community.

Natural access control

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95. CPTED strategy: removal of tall hedges and solid fences ensuring view of streets and sidewalks.

Natural access control

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95. CPTED strategy: This openness discourages would-be offenders who prefer to conceal themselves behind opaque barriers.

Natural access control

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95. CPTED strategy: Prominent video cameras on buildings can act as additional deterrents.

Natural access control

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95. CPTED strategy: involves the use of hardware, lighting, and other elements (such as alarm systems and guard or pet dogs) designed to make a home or business less vulnerable to physical intrusion.

Target hardening

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95. CPTED strategy: high-quality window locks and stout deadbolt locks for doors to discourage intrusion.

Target hardening

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95. CPTED strategy: recessed interior door hinges can make it nearly impossible for burglars to remove hinges.

Target hardening

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96. To develop an effective CPTED plan, neighbors must remain alert to what is happening in their community, and everyone needs to...

shoulder responsibility for residents’ overall well-being.

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96. Has helped create a sense of urgency for suppressing crime and apprehending suspects.

CompStat approach

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98. These needs and risks assessments powerfully shape...

the rest of the planning process.

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99. A ________ is an undesirable circumstance that has not yet occurred but that a police agency should identify and develop plans for mitigating.

Risk

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99 Types of risks faced by police agencies.

- Internal organization risks
- External risks
- Neighborhood risks

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98. The first step (Step 1) of three steps essential to all planning is

assessing needs and risks