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1

Gender

a social status, a legal designation, and a personal identity. Gender divisions and their accompanying norms and role expectations are built into the major social institutions of society, such as the economy, the family, the state, culture, religion and the law.

2

Sex

a complex interplay of genes, hormones, environment and behaviour.

3

Sexuality

sexuality s more complex, involving anatomy, hormones, and a massive dose of social construction

4

Interplanetary theory of gender difference

the idea that men are from Mars and women are from Venus. “opposites” – universal gender difference

5

Hegemonic

something that is upheld as the model; hegemonic ideals can be contested, but cannot be ignored because of their cultural power

6

Hegemonic masculinity

theory developed by Connell to explain male gender ideology. The “culturally honored” version of masculinity”.
 Emphasizes competition among men for power and dominance

7

Biological determinism:

the view that behaviour and character of an organism, group, or system are determined by biological factors.

8

Deceptive distinctions

differences between men and women that appear to be gender differences, but may be the result of different positions within society

9

Differential socialization:

NURTURE; this perspective asserts that men and women are different because they are socialized differently from birth, thus acquiring “feminine or masculine” traits, behaviours and attitudes

10

Emphasized femininity

: connell’s model of female gender ideology, which asserts that femininity is displayed as COMPLIANCE with gender inequality and is associated with accommodating the desires and interests of men.

11

Institutional gender neutrality:

the idea that while people have gender, institutions are gender-neutral (rather than being the product of historical and social constructions).

12

Privilege

the advances that come from being a member of a dominant group (ie: gender, race, class, ability or sex), the principal of which be the presumption of normalcy and universality

13

Invisibility of privilege:

the idea that those who are dominant in a society may not be aware of their dominance or special status, but can see themselves as “universal” human beings or citizens. Because of this, people may not be awareof the extent of discrimination.

14

Male dominance

a system that grants greater power, value, authority, and access to resources to men. Mens authority is reinforces throughout society and its social, political, religious, cultural and economic institutions. Sometimes referred to as “patriarchy”.

15

Mean differences:

differences in the AVERAGE scores of men and women on standardized tests, which may be taken as representative of ABSOLUTE differences between the sexes

16

Sex difference

chromosomal, anatomical, and hormonal differences between females and males; to be considered sex differences, these distinctions must be biologically rather than culturally derived

17

Social constructionism

the theoretical orientation that sees the expression and organization of gender not as the outcome of biology, but as the result of historical and cultural change, the socialization of individuals, and the continuous interplay between gendered individuals and gendered institutions.

18

Gendered society

any society in which social institutions reproduce and reinforce dominant definitions of gender and `discipline` those who deviate from these definitions