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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (19)
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bona fide occupational requirement (BFOR)

a BFOR is a true requirement of a job that merits a possibly discriminatory effect.
For example, to work in a warehouse, one might have to meet height and strength requirements that have the effect of discriminating against many women and all disabled people. Because the requirement is a BFOR, the discrimination is legal.


deviance neutralization

Rationalization strategies engaged in to minimize the extent to which one deviates from a real or perceived norm.
For example, a woman who worries about how her higher income affects her husband's self-esteem might claim that his work pays less, but is higher-level than hers, or might actually minimize her earnings.


employment equity

A term coined in the 80s by Justice Rosalie Abella to describe a process of planning for full workplace integration in Canada's four equity groups (women, Aboriginal people, people with disabilities, and visible minorities ). Employment equity distinguishes itself from USA-style affirmative action.


family-friendly workplace policies

Policies and workplace cultural changes that reduce conflict between workers' employment and their family responsibilities. Examples include child care, support for breastfeeding mothers, provisions for eldercare, flexible working arrangements such as job sharing or teleworking, leave provisions, and employee assistance programs.


glass ceiling

Barriers (often informal, unconscious, or invisible) to the advancement of a qualified person within a given organization, solely on the basis of that person's sex or minority status


glass cellar

Term for the clustering of male workers within hazardous occupations


glass escalator

the phenomenon whereby men in female-dominated professions experience preferential hiring and promotion


horizontal segregation

Segregation within occupations in different fields that are roughly similar in terms of education and skill, ie secretarial work and truck driving


hostile environment sexual harassment

the creation of a threatening and hostile atmosphere aimed at making women (or others) feel unwelcome, unsafe and compromised


mommy track

The phenomenon whereby mothers might retain paid employment while giving up the possibility of career advance they might have enjoyed had they not had children and remained on the "fast track"


pay equity

A theory and body of legislation and policy comprising two main concepts: the notion of equal pay for the same work and the idea of equal pay for work of equal value. Increasingly, pay equity means simply the latter.


pin money

Dating back to the seventeenth century, the term 'pin money' is still used to describe small amounts of money that can be used for discretionary or frivolous spending


precarious employment

Sometimes called 'contingent' or 'non-standard' employment, precarious employment is work that does not conform with the typical understanding of a stable, full-time job in which one works full-time on the employer's premises with some degree of job security


quid pro quo sexual harassment

A form of sexual harassment legally recognized in the USA; the offer of benefit in exchange for sexual favours, or the threat of being fired if sexual favours and not received


sex segregation

The concentration of men and women in gender-specific roles and locations within a society. It has been argued that sex segregation is associated with lower status for women. Within employment, the term refers to the concentration of men and women within different occupations, industries, jobs, and fields. This form of sex segregation may be either vertical or horizontal.


sticky floor

the phenomenon, linked to the glass ceiling, that traps women and minorities at the lower levels of organizations regardless of their qualification for advancement



the phenomenon that makes women and minorities highly visible within previously unintegrated organizations. Because they are always regarded as representing a group, tokens experience a variety of difficulties and frustrations, and their hiring and promotion may not change the workplace significantly for others.


vertical segregation

segregation associated with differences of education, experience, and skill within the same field. For example, legal secretarial work and judging. Both subsumed within the field of Law.


wage gap

the difference between the average earnings of male and female full-time workers, either broadly or within a particular field.