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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (59):
1

Define Anatomy

The study of form

2

How can one examine the structure of the body? (4)

Inspection
Percussion
Palpation
Auscultation

3

Define Cadaver dissection

cutting & separation of tissues to reveal relationship

4

Define comparative anatomy

study of more than 1 species in order to determine structural similarities & differences

5

Define percussion

tapping on surface to determine the underlying structure

6

Define palpation

feeling with fingers during examination

7

Define auscultation

listening to sounds of the internal body

8

How can you study human anatomy? (7)

Exploratory surgery
Medical imaging
Gross anatomy
Cytology
Histology
Ultrastructure
Histopathology

9

Define Physiology

the study of function

10

What are a few sub-disciplines of physiology? (3)

neurophysiology
endocrinology
pathophysiology

11

Hippocrates (3)

"Father of Medicine"
established code of ethics
urged physicians to seek natural causes of disease

12

Aristotle (3)

one of the first philosophers to write about A&P
diseases had either supernatural vs natural causes
complex structures are built from simpler parts

13

supernatural causes of disease (Aristotle)

theologi

14

natural causes of disease (Aristotle)

physiologi

15

Claudius Galen (3)

did animal dissection
saw science as a method of discover
thought followers should trust their own observations

16

Andreas Vesalius (1)

published the first atlas of anatomy

17

William Harvey & Servetus (1)

realized blood flows from heart and back to it again

18

Robert Hooke (1)

made improvements to the compound microscope

19

Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwann (1)

concluded that all organisms were composed of cells (first tenet cell theory)

20

Scientific Method (6)

1.make observation
2.form hypothesis
3.perform experiment
4.analyze data
5.report your findings
6.invite others to reproduce results

21

Knowledge of anatomy obtained by this method?

Inductive Method

22

Inductive Method

making numerous observations until one becomes confident in drawing generalizations & predictions
can not be falsified

23

More physiological knowledge gained by this method?

Hypothetico-deductive Method

24

Hypothetico-deductive method

testable hypothesis that can be falsified w/evidence

25

Aspects of experimental designs that help to ensure objective & reliable results? (4)

sample size
controls
psychosomatic effects
experimenter bias

26

Peer Review

critical evaluation by other experts in the field

27

scientific fact

information that can be independently varied by trained person (reproducible)

28

law of nature (2)

-generalizations about the predictable way matter and energy behave
-results from inductive reasoning

29

theory

a set of statements derived from fact, law, and confirmed hypothesis

30

theory of natural selection (2)

-describes how species originated and changed through time
-leads to evolution

31

evolution

change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms

32

selection pressure

natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals over others

33

some individuals have ______ ____over their competitors

hereditary advantage

34

adaptions

features of an organism A&P that have evolved in response to a selection pressure that helps the organisms cope with the challenge of the environment

35

The principal theory of how evolution works, is called?

natural selection

36

What are some adaptations for treetop lifestyle? (5)

-mobile shoulders
-forward facing eyes
-opposable thumbs
-color vision
-larger brains & good memory

37

bipedalism

standing & walking on two legs

38

What are some adaptations for bipedalism?

-skeletal & muscular modifications
-increased brain volume
-family life & social changes

39

List the hierarchy of complexity (8)

atoms->molecules->organelles->cells->tissues->organs->organ systems->organism

40

reductism

a large complex system can be understood by studying it simpler components

41

holism

the whole organism cannot be predicted from the properties of separate parts

42

What percentage of humans are anatomically variant? examples?

30%
kidney (horseshoe or pelvic)
aorta of the heart

43

What are the characteristics of a living organism? (8)

-organization
-cellular composition
-metabolism
-responsiveness & movement
-homeostasis
-development
-reproduction
-evolution

44

homeostasis

body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms to oppose it, and in turn stabilize the internal environment

45

Who coined the term homeostasis?

Walton Cannon

46

Negative feedback

maintain homeostasis & keep variables close to the set point

47

Examples of negative feedback

vasoconstriction (cold) & vasodilation (hot)

48

What are the components of negative feedback?

receptor, integration system, & effector

49

positive feedback (2)

-self amplifying cycle
-change produces more change

50

Examples of positive feedback

childbirth, fever, blood clotting

51

gradient

difference in chemical concentration, charge, temp, or pressure between 2 points

52

Matter & energy tend to flow ______ gradients.

down

53

large=_____
larger=____
largest=______

magnus
major
maximus

54

In X-rays dense tissue appears______

white

55

radiopaque substances

injected/swallowed that fills hollow structures

56

CT scan (2)

-also known as CAT scan
-low intensity xrays that produce slice images

57

PET scan/positron emission tomography (2)

-distinguishes which tissues are most active at a given moment
-good for cancer
-red:active blue:inactive

58

MRI/magnetic resonance imaging

-best for soft tissue
-slice images produced superior to CT scan

59

sonography

high frequency sound waves echo back from internal organs