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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (72)
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1
Q

Who concluded that animal tissues are made from cells?

A

Schwann

2
Q

Who established that cells arise only from other cells?

A

Pasteur

3
Q

Modern Cell Theory (5)

A
  • organisms composed of cells
  • cell is the simplest structural & functional unit of life
  • cells come from preexisting cells
  • organisms structure & function are due to activities of cells
  • cells exhibit biochemical similarities
4
Q

cell growth increases _____more than ____

A

volume; surface area

5
Q

plasma membrane (3)

A
  • surrounds the cell
  • made of proteins & lipids
  • controls passage of material in & out of the cell
6
Q

purpose of cholesterol in the membrane?

A

stiffens the membrane & holds phospholipids

7
Q

purpose of glycolipids in the membrane?

A

contributes to glyocalyx (carbs coating on the cell surface)

8
Q

transmembrane proteins (3)

A
  • pass through membrane
  • have hydrophobic & hydrophilic regions
  • most are glycoproteins
9
Q

peripheral proteins (2)

A
  • adhere to one face of the membrane

- tethered to cytoskeleton

10
Q

Functions of membrane proteins (7)

A
  • receptors
  • carriers
  • second-messenger
  • enzymes
  • ion channels
  • cell identity marker
  • cell adhesion molecules
11
Q

Second messenger system (2 steps)

A
  1. chemical binds to surface receptor

2. Triggers changes within the cell that produce a second messenger in the cytoplasm

12
Q

kinase

A

adds phosphate groups to enzymes which can either activate or inactivate an enzyme

13
Q

G protein

A

intracellular peripheral protein

14
Q

cAMP vs ATP

A

cAMP: 1 phosphate group
ATP: 3 phosphate groups

15
Q

What do transmembrane proteins with pores allow to pass though?

A

water and dissolved ions

16
Q

what are the 3 types of gated channels?

A
  • ligand
  • voltage
  • mechanically
17
Q

pumps consume _____ in the process

A

ATP

18
Q

what contributes to the glycocalyx that acts like an identification marker?
are they unique in everyone?

A

glycoproteins

yes; except twins

19
Q

CAMs

A
  • cell adhesion molecules

- adhere cells to other cells and extracelluar material

20
Q

What does a cell need to grow & survive?

A

it needs to be mechanically linked to the extracellular material

21
Q

microvilli (3)

A
  • extensions of membrane
  • serves to increase cells surface area
  • specialized in absorption
22
Q

what shorten microvilli?

A

actin filaments which are centered in each microvilli

23
Q

cilia

A

hairlike processes that move mucus around

24
Q

axoneme (2)

A
  • core of cilia that is the basis of movement

- has 9+2 structure of microtubules

25
Q

cystic fibrosis

A

hereditary disease in which cells make chloride pumps, but fail to install them in the plasma membrane

26
Q

saline layer for cilia

A

chloride pumps pump Cl- into ECF

27
Q

flagella (2)

A
  • whiplike structure with axoneme identical to cilium

- longer than cilium

28
Q

pseudopods

A

continually changing extensions of the cell that vary in shape & size

29
Q

passive transport does/doesn’t require ATP, while active transport does/doesn’t require ATP

A

does not; does

30
Q

examples of passive transport (3)

A

filtration
diffusion
osmosis

31
Q

filtration

A

particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure

32
Q

simple diffusion

A

the net movement of particles from area of high concentration to low concentration

33
Q

factors affecting diffusion (5)

A
  • temperature
  • molecular weight
  • steepness of concentration gradient
  • membrane surface area
  • membrane permeability
34
Q

What can diffuse through lipid bilayer? (3)

A
  • nonpolar
  • hydrophobic
  • lipid-soluble substances
35
Q

What can diffuse through channel proteins? (3)

A
  • water
  • charged
  • hydrophilic solutes
36
Q

how can you increase the rate of osmosis?

A

aquaporins

37
Q

osmolarity

A

of osmoles (particles) of solute per liter of solution

38
Q

tonicity; what does it depend on?

A
  • ability of a solution to affect fluid volume & pressure in a cell
  • concentration & permeability of solute
39
Q

2 types of carrier mediated transport

A
  • facilitated diffusion

- active transport

40
Q

transport proteins are ___ for certain ligands

A

specific

41
Q

facilitated diffusion (2)

A
  • carrier mediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient
  • does not require ATP
42
Q

primary active transport (2)

A
  • carrier moves solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient
  • requires ATP
43
Q

what type of transport is Na-K pump?mechanism?

A
  • primary active transport

- uses 1 ATP and pumps 3 Na(out) for 2 K(in)

44
Q

carries only one solute at a time

A

uniport

45
Q

carries two or more solutes (different) in the same direction

A

symporter (cotransport)

46
Q

carries two or more solutes in opposite directiones

A

antiporter (countertransport)

47
Q

carrier mediated transport

A

transport proteins in the plasma membrane that carry specific solutes from one side of the membrane to the other

48
Q

carrier mediated transport:as the solute concentration ____, the rate of transport _____, but only to a point

A

rise; rise

49
Q

purpose of Na-K pump?

A

to maintain negatively charged resting membrane potential

50
Q

secondary active transport

A

carrier moves solute through membrane but only uses ATP indirectly

51
Q

vesicular transport

A

moves large particles, liquids, or numerous molecules at once through the membrane in vesicles

52
Q

endocytosis

A

bring material into the cell

53
Q

phagocytosis

A

engulfing large particles

54
Q

pinocytosis

A

taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules useful in the cell

55
Q

exocytosis

A

discharging material from the cell

56
Q

cytoskeleton

A

collection of filaments and cylinders that determine shape of cells and lead structural support

57
Q

what is the cytoskeleton composed of?

A

microtubules
intermediate fibers
microfilaments

58
Q

what organelle is the largest?

A

nucleus

59
Q

what are the organelles in the cell? (6)

A
nucleus
ER
golgi complex
mitochondria
lysosomes
peroxisomes
60
Q

rough ER (4)

A
  • produce phospholipids & proteins of the plasma membrane
  • first section continuous with nuclear membrane
  • has ribosomes
  • flatten cisternae
61
Q

smooth ER (4)

A
  • lacks ribosomes
  • tubular cisternae
  • synthesize steroids & other lipids
  • detoxifies alcohols & drugs
62
Q

small granules & RNA

A

ribosomes

63
Q

golgi complex (2)

A
  • synthesize carbs

- put finishing touches on protein synthesis (packaging)

64
Q

where can the vesicles from the golgi end up?

A
  • lysosomes
  • fuse with plasma membrane
  • become secretory vesicles for later release
65
Q

lysosomes derive from? function?

A
  • produced my golgi

- intracellular digestion of macromolecules

66
Q

peroxisomes (2)

A
  • resemble lysosomes, but are not produced by golgi

- produce hydrogen peroxide

67
Q

hollow cylindrical organelles that dispose of surplus proteins

A

proteosomes

68
Q

mitochondria

A

specialized for synthesizing ATP

69
Q

where is it thought that the mitochondria originated from?

A

bacteria

70
Q

centrioles (3)

A
  • short assembly of microtubules arranged in 9 groups of 3 microtubles
  • important in cell division
  • make up the centrosomes (2x)
71
Q

two types of inclusions

A
  • stored cellular products

- foreign bodies

72
Q

are inclusions essential for cell survival?

A

NO