Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (100):
simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
number of protons in its nucleus
How many elements have biological roles?
-inorganic elements extracted from soil by plants & passed up the food chain to humans
-constitute 4% of body weight
What are electrolytes (mineral salts) needed for?
nerve & muscle function
Electrons determine the ______ properties of atoms
elements that differ from one another due to the number of neutrons
atomic weight (2)
-relative atomic mass
-accounts for the fact that an element is a mixture of it s isotopes
unstable isotopes that give off radiation
radioisotopes decay to stabilize isotopes by releasing radiation
Who was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize?
What happens when an atom is converted into an ion?
high energy radiation ejects electrons from atoms
charged particles with unequal number of protons & electrons
transfer of electrons from one atom to another
atom that gains electrons (-charge)
atom that loses and electron (+ charge)
-salts that ionize in water & form solutions
-can conduct an electric current
What is one of the most important considerations in patient care?
free radicals (2)
-chemical particles with an odd number of electrons
-produced by normal metabolic reactions
What do free radicals cause?
neutralize free radicals
chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms united by a chemical bond
made up of molecules with 2 or more different elements
molecules with identical molecular formulas, but different arrangements
What the types of chemical bonds?
-van der waals forces
single vs double covalent bonds
single:one pair of electrons shared
double:two pairs of electrons are shared
nonpolar covalent bonds
electrons shared equally
polar covalent bonds
electrons shared unequally
a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slight negative atom
Are water molecules weak/strongly attracted to one another?
Van der waals forces (2)
-weak brief attractions between neutral atoms
-only 1% as strong as covalent bonds
consist of substances physically not chemically blended
Properties of water (5)
-cohesion (surface tension)
-chemical reactivity (hydrolysis & dehydration)
-thermal stability (high heat capacity)
-water used to break bonds
-breaks covalent bonds
water released when bonds are made
consists of a solute & solvent
-can change from liquid to gel state within & between cells
-in the body they are mixtures of protein & water
-too large to pass thru semipermeable membrane
-remain permanently mixed with the solvent when left alone
-too large to penetrate selectively permeable membranes
-separates when left alone
suspension of one liquid in another
in a percentage (concentration) (2)
-# of molecules unequal
-weight of solute equal
in molar (concentration) (2)
-# of molecules equal
-weight of solute unequal
proton donor (release H+)
proton acceptor (accept H+)
measurement of H+ on a log scale
What does our body use to resist changes in pH?
capacity to do work
potential energy (2)
-energy contained in an object b/c of its position or internal state
-not doing work
kinetic energy (2) & example
-energy in motion
-energy that is actively doing work
-large molecule breaks down into 2 or more smaller ones
classes of chemical reactions (3)
potential energy available in a system to do useful work
synthesis reactions (3)
-two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one
-two molecules exchange atoms or group of atoms
-create & make
reaction rates affected by (3)
-concentration of reactants
-substances that temporarily bind to reactants
-speed up reactions
-not permanently consumed or changed
-breaks covalent bonds
-require energy input
-driven by energy that catabolism releases
Catabolism & anabolism are _______ linked
-molecules give up electrons & releases energy
-molecule that gains electrons & energy
4 categories of carbon compounds
Characteristics of Carbon (3)
-has 4 valence electrons
-bind readily with each other to form a carbon backbone
-neutral backbone carries a variety of functional group
very large organic molecules
made up of repetitive monomers
identical or smaller subunits
converted into glucose
oxidized to make ATP
3 important monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
What type of sugar is glucose?
3 important disaccharides
sucrose, maltose, lactose
3 polysaccharides in Humans
glycogen, starch, cellulose
What is the purpose of glycogen?
energy storage of polysaccharides in animals
What is the purpose of starch?
energy storage in plants
What is the purpose of cellulose in plants?humans?
structural molecule of plant cell walls; fiber in our diet (helps move materials through intestine)
covalently bond to lipid or protein
What conjugated carbs are apart of the external cell surface coat?
glycoproteins & glycolipids
purpose of proteoglycan? (2)
5 primary types of lipids in humans
less oxidized than carbs
What type of fat are triglycercides?
structure of triglycerides
3 fatty acids covalently bond to glycerol
triglycerides when liquid___, when solid____
primary function of triglycerides? (3)
fatty acid (2)
-chain of 4 to 24 carbon atoms
-contain a carboxyl group on one end and methyl group on the other
saturated fatty acids vs. unsaturated fatty acid
saturated:carbon atom saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated:contains C=C bonds
What types of fats can not be synthesized by the body?
essential fatty acids
similar to neutral fat, but 1 fatty acid is replaced by phosphate group
chemical messenger between cells
-"parent" steroid from which other steroids are synthesized
-synthesized only by animals
which is the good/bad cholesterol?
good: HDL (lower ratio of lipids to proteins)
bad: LDL (high ratio of lipids to proteins)
2 or more amino acids
what causes a protein to denature?
extreme heat or pH
the different structures of proteins are held together by what type of bonds?
non amino acid moiety of a conjugated protein?
what are the functions of proteins? (7)
recognition & protection
-lower activation energy
-break covalent bonds between monomers in substrate
cofactor vs coenzyme
cofactor: inorganic; induce a change in enzyme shape to activate active site
coenzyme: organic; accept electrons from an enzyme and transfer to another enzyme
3 components of nucleotides
1 or more phosphate groups
adenine (nitrogenous base)
phosphate groups (3)
Where does ATP hold its energy
in covalent bonds