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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (100):
1

element

simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties

2

atomic number

number of protons in its nucleus

3

How many elements have biological roles?

24 elements

4

minerals (2)

-inorganic elements extracted from soil by plants & passed up the food chain to humans
-constitute 4% of body weight

5

What are electrolytes (mineral salts) needed for?

nerve & muscle function

6

Electrons determine the ______ properties of atoms

chemical

7

isotopes

elements that differ from one another due to the number of neutrons

8

atomic weight (2)

-relative atomic mass
-accounts for the fact that an element is a mixture of it s isotopes

9

radioisotopes

unstable isotopes that give off radiation

10

radioactivity

radioisotopes decay to stabilize isotopes by releasing radiation

11

Who was the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize?

Madame Curie

12

What happens when an atom is converted into an ion?

high energy radiation ejects electrons from atoms

13

ions

charged particles with unequal number of protons & electrons

14

ionization

transfer of electrons from one atom to another

15

anion

atom that gains electrons (-charge)

16

cation

atom that loses and electron (+ charge)

17

electrolytes

-salts that ionize in water & form solutions
-can conduct an electric current

18

What is one of the most important considerations in patient care?

electrolytes

19

free radicals (2)

-chemical particles with an odd number of electrons
-produced by normal metabolic reactions

20

What do free radicals cause?

tissue damage

21

antioxidants

neutralize free radicals

22

molecules

chemical particles composed of 2 or more atoms united by a chemical bond

23

compound

made up of molecules with 2 or more different elements

24

isomers

molecules with identical molecular formulas, but different arrangements

25

What the types of chemical bonds?

-ionic
-covalent
-hydrogen
-van der waals forces

26

single vs double covalent bonds

single:one pair of electrons shared
double:two pairs of electrons are shared

27

nonpolar covalent bonds

electrons shared equally

28

polar covalent bonds

electrons shared unequally

29

hydrogen bonds

a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slight negative atom

30

Are water molecules weak/strongly attracted to one another?

weakly

31

Van der waals forces (2)

-weak brief attractions between neutral atoms
-only 1% as strong as covalent bonds

32

mixtures

consist of substances physically not chemically blended

33

Properties of water (5)

-universal solvent
-cohesion (surface tension)
-adhesion
-chemical reactivity (hydrolysis & dehydration)
-thermal stability (high heat capacity)

34

hydrolysis (2)

-water used to break bonds
-breaks covalent bonds

35

dehydration

water released when bonds are made

36

solution

consists of a solute & solvent

37

colloids (6)

-can change from liquid to gel state within & between cells
-in the body they are mixtures of protein & water
-small particles
-too large to pass thru semipermeable membrane
-remain permanently mixed with the solvent when left alone
-cloudy

38

suspension (4)

-large particles
-too large to penetrate selectively permeable membranes
-separates when left alone
-cloudy

39

emulsion

suspension of one liquid in another

40

in a percentage (concentration) (2)

-# of molecules unequal
-weight of solute equal

41

in molar (concentration) (2)

-# of molecules equal
-weight of solute unequal

42

acid

proton donor (release H+)

43

base

proton acceptor (accept H+)

44

pH

measurement of H+ on a log scale

45

What does our body use to resist changes in pH?

buffer

46

energy

capacity to do work

47

potential energy (2)

-energy contained in an object b/c of its position or internal state
-not doing work

48

kinetic energy (2) & example

-energy in motion
-energy that is actively doing work
ex. heat

49

decomposition reactions(3)

-large molecule breaks down into 2 or more smaller ones
-AB-> A+B
-break

50

classes of chemical reactions (3)

-decomposition
-synthesis
-exchange

51

free energy

potential energy available in a system to do useful work

52

synthesis reactions (3)

-two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one
-A+B->AB
-create

53

exchange reactions

-two molecules exchange atoms or group of atoms
-create & make

54

reaction rates affected by (3)

-concentration of reactants
-temperature
-catalysts

55

catalysts (3)

-substances that temporarily bind to reactants
-speed up reactions
-not permanently consumed or changed

56

catabolism (3)

-exgeronic
-breaks covalent bonds
-decomposition

57

anabolism (4)

-endergonic
-require energy input
-synthesis
-driven by energy that catabolism releases

58

Catabolism & anabolism are _______ linked

inseparately

59

oxidation (2)

-molecules give up electrons & releases energy
-reducing agent

60

reduction (2)

-molecule that gains electrons & energy
-oxidizing agent

61

4 categories of carbon compounds

-carbohydrates (sugar)
-lipids (fat)
-protein
-nucleotides

62

Characteristics of Carbon (3)

-has 4 valence electrons
-bind readily with each other to form a carbon backbone
-neutral backbone carries a variety of functional group

63

macromolecules

very large organic molecules

64

polymers/polymerization

made up of repetitive monomers

65

monomers

identical or smaller subunits

66

carbohydrates (4)

hydrophilic
CH2O
converted into glucose
oxidized to make ATP

67

3 important monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

68

What type of sugar is glucose?

blood sugar

69

3 important disaccharides

sucrose, maltose, lactose

70

3 polysaccharides in Humans

glycogen, starch, cellulose

71

What is the purpose of glycogen?

energy storage of polysaccharides in animals

72

What is the purpose of starch?

energy storage in plants

73

What is the purpose of cellulose in plants?humans?

structural molecule of plant cell walls; fiber in our diet (helps move materials through intestine)

74

conjugated carbohydrates

covalently bond to lipid or protein

75

What conjugated carbs are apart of the external cell surface coat?

glycoproteins & glycolipids

76

purpose of proteoglycan? (2)

cell adhesion
lubrication

77

5 primary types of lipids in humans

triglycerides
steriods
eicosaniods
fatty acids
phospholipids

78

Lipids (2)

hydrophobic
less oxidized than carbs

79

What type of fat are triglycercides?

neutral fat

80

structure of triglycerides

3 fatty acids covalently bond to glycerol

81

triglycerides when liquid___, when solid____

oil; fat

82

primary function of triglycerides? (3)

energy storage
insulation
shock absorption

83

fatty acid (2)

-chain of 4 to 24 carbon atoms
-contain a carboxyl group on one end and methyl group on the other

84

saturated fatty acids vs. unsaturated fatty acid

saturated:carbon atom saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated:contains C=C bonds

85

What types of fats can not be synthesized by the body?

essential fatty acids

86

phospholipid

similar to neutral fat, but 1 fatty acid is replaced by phosphate group

87

eicosaniods

chemical messenger between cells

88

cholesterol (2)

-"parent" steroid from which other steroids are synthesized
-synthesized only by animals

89

which is the good/bad cholesterol?

good: HDL (lower ratio of lipids to proteins)
bad: LDL (high ratio of lipids to proteins)

90

peptide

2 or more amino acids

91

what causes a protein to denature?

extreme heat or pH

92

the different structures of proteins are held together by what type of bonds?

hydrogen bonds

93

non amino acid moiety of a conjugated protein?

prosthetic group

94

what are the functions of proteins? (7)

structure
communication
membrane transport
catalysis
recognition & protection
movement
celladhesion

95

enzymes (3)

-lower activation energy
-biological catalyst
-break covalent bonds between monomers in substrate

96

cofactor vs coenzyme

cofactor: inorganic; induce a change in enzyme shape to activate active site
coenzyme: organic; accept electrons from an enzyme and transfer to another enzyme

97

3 components of nucleotides

nitrogenous base
sugar
1 or more phosphate groups

98

ATP components

adenine (nitrogenous base)
ribose (sugar)
phosphate groups (3)

99

Where does ATP hold its energy

in covalent bonds

100

Other types of nucleotides?

GTP
cAMP