Chapter 16: Sense Organs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16: Sense Organs Deck (94)
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1
Q

sensory receptor

A

a structure that detects a stimuli

2
Q

transduction

A

the conversion of one form of energy to another

stimulus energy to nerve signal

3
Q

sensation

A

an awareness of the stimulus

4
Q

most ____ signals delivered to the CNS produce no ____ sensation

A

sensory; conscious

5
Q

What are the 4 types of info transmitted by sensory receptors?

A
  • modality
  • location
  • intensity
  • duration
6
Q

modality

A

type of stimulus or the sensation it produces

vision, hearing, taste

7
Q

What does the brain use to interpret what modality a signal represents?

A

labeled line code

8
Q

Why does the body have a labeled line code?

A

because all action potentials are the same

9
Q

location

A

encoded by which nerve fibers are issuing signals to the brain

10
Q

area that detects stimuli for a sensory neuron

A

receptor field

11
Q

intensity

A

encoded in 3 ways

  • which fibers are sending signals
  • how many fibers are doing so
  • how fast these fibers are firing
12
Q

duration

A

how long the stimulus last

13
Q

phasic receptors

A

generate a burst of action potentials when first stimulated, but then dull down after the stimulus adapts QUICKLY even though the action potential continues

14
Q

tonic receptors

A

adapt slowly, generate nerve signals more steadily

15
Q

an example of a tonic receptor is?

A

proprioceptors

16
Q

How can receptors be classified? (3)

A
  • by modality
  • by distribution
  • by origin of the stimuli
17
Q

Classification of receptor?

thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, nocireceptors

A

by modality

18
Q

Classification of receptor?

exteroceptors, interoceptors, proprioceptors

A

by origin of the stimuli

19
Q

Classification of receptor?

general (somoesthetic) senses: widely distributed

A

by distribution

20
Q

What are 4 types of encapsulated nerve endings?

A
  • tactile corpuscles
  • krause end bulbs
  • lamellar corpuscles (phasic)
  • bulbous corpuscles (tonic)
21
Q

From receptors to final destinations, most signals travel by way of _____ neurons

A

3

22
Q

first order neuron (somatosensory projection pathways)

A

afferent (toward CNS)

23
Q

first order neuron
from body, enter the __ ___ of the spinal cord
from heard, enter ___ and the ____ via cranial nerves

A

dorsal horn

pons; medulla

24
Q

Touch, pressure, and proprioceptors are on _______; while heat & cold are on _____

A

large myelinated axons; small unmyelinated axons

25
Q

second order neurons (somatosensory projection pathways)

A

interneurons the decussate to opposite sides in the spinal cord

26
Q

Where do second order neurons end up?

A

in the thalamus except for proprioceptors (cerebellum)

27
Q

third order neurons (somatosensory projection pathways)

A

thalamus to primary cortex of cerebrum (postcentral)

28
Q

pain

A

discomfort caused by tissue injury

29
Q

nociceptors

A

provide different pain sensations

30
Q

somatic pain

A

skin, muscle, joins

31
Q

visceral pain

A

viscera organs

32
Q

____ is the most potent pain stimulus known. ___ are released to stimulate pain fibers.

A

bradykinin; chemicals

33
Q

What are the 2 projection pathways for pain?

A

the head, and from the neck down

34
Q

Pain signals from the head

A

1st neuron: cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion
2nd neuron: decussate & send fibers up spinothalamic tract
3rd neuron: thalamus to post central gyrus

35
Q

Somatic pain travels via _____

Visceral, Emotional travels via _____ (reticular formation) or _____ (thalamus)

A

spinothalamic tract

spinoreticular tract; gracile fasciculus

36
Q

referred pain

A

pain in the viscera often mistakenly thought to come from the skin or other superficial site; BRAIN IS CONFUSED

37
Q

analgesic

A

pain relieving

38
Q

neuromodulators can block what?

A

transmission of pain signals and produce feelings of euphoria

39
Q

spinal gating

A

stops pain signals at the posterior horn of the spinal cord

40
Q

gustation

A

taste (chemoreceptors)

41
Q

taste pores

A

pit in which the taste hairs project

42
Q

taste hairs are ____ not neurons

A

epithelial cells

43
Q

to be tasted what must happen

A

molecules must dissolve in saliva and flood the taste pore

44
Q

5 primary taste sensations

A

bitter, sweet, sour, umani, salty

45
Q

2 mechanisms of action for taste

A

second-messenger system

depolarize cells directly

46
Q

olfaction

A

sense of smell

are neurons

47
Q

taste vs. smell

A

smell is are neurons not epithelial cells

48
Q

what is the order of the olfactory projection pathway?

A
  1. olfactory bulb
  2. primary olfactory cortex
  3. hippocampus
49
Q

hearing

A

a response to vibrating air molecules

50
Q

hearing and equilibrium reside in what part of the ear?

A

inner ear

51
Q

outer ear

A

funnel for conducting vibrations to the tympanic membrane

52
Q

middle ear

A

located in the air filled tympanic cavity in the temporal bone (enclosed air space)

53
Q

auditory tube connects _____ to ____

A

middle ear cavity to nasopharynx

54
Q

otitis media

A

middle ear infection common in children due to angle

55
Q

inner ear (2)

A

filled with fluid sacs (endolymph and perilymph)

responsible for equilibrium

56
Q

cochlea

A

organ of hearing

long tube

57
Q

what are the 3 fluid filled chambers of the cochlea?

A
scala vestibuli (superior)
cochlear duct (middle chamber)
scala tempani inferior)
58
Q

inner hair cells vs outer hair cells

A
provides for hearing (inner)
increases precision (outer)
59
Q

static equilibrium

A

perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary

60
Q

dynamic equilibrium

A

perception of motion of acceleration

61
Q

oval window send _____ vs the round window

A

frequencies

62
Q

neuromodulators can block what?

A

transmission of pain signals and produce feelings of euphoria

63
Q

spinal gating

A

stops pain signals at the posterior horn of the spinal cord

64
Q

gustation

A

taste (chemoreceptors)

65
Q

taste pores

A

pit in which the taste hairs project

66
Q

taste hairs are ____ not neurons

A

epithelial cells

67
Q

to be tasted what must happen

A

molecules must dissolve in saliva and flood the taste pore

68
Q

cones

A

color and day vision

69
Q

2 mechanisms of action for taste

A

second-messenger system

depolarize cells directly

70
Q

olfaction

A

sense of smell

are neurons

71
Q

taste vs. smell

A

smell is are neurons not epithelial cells

72
Q

what is the order of the olfactory projection pathway?

A
  1. olfactory bulb
  2. primary olfactory cortex
  3. hippocampus
73
Q

hearing

A

a response to vibrating air molecules

74
Q

hearing and equilibrium reside in what part of the ear?

A

inner ear

75
Q

outer ear

A

funnel for conducting vibrations to the tympanic membrane

76
Q

middle ear

A

located in the air filled tympanic cavity in the temporal bone (enclosed air space)

77
Q

auditory tube connects _____ to ____

A

middle ear cavity to nasopharynx

78
Q

otitis media

A

middle ear infection common in children due to angle

79
Q

inner ear (2)

A

filled with fluid sacs (endolymph and perilymph)

responsible for equilibrium

80
Q

cochlea

A

organ of hearing

long tube

81
Q

what are the 3 fluid filled chambers of the cochlea?

A
scala vestibuli (superior)
cochlear duct (middle chamber)
scala tempani inferior)
82
Q

inner hair cells vs outer hair cells

A
provides for hearing (inner)
increases precision (outer)
83
Q

static equilibrium

A

perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary

84
Q

dynamic equilibrium

A

perception of motion of acceleration

85
Q

oval window send _____ vs the round window

A

frequencies

86
Q

calcium carbonate protein granules that add to the weight and inertia to enhance sense of gravity

A

otoliths

87
Q

movement in semicircular canals?

A

direction of motion

88
Q

optic disc

A

blind spot

89
Q

farsightedness

A

eye is too short

90
Q

nearsightedness

A

eye is too long

91
Q

rods

A

help with night vision

92
Q

rods contain visual pigmented ______

A

rhodopsin

93
Q

2 major parts of rhodopsin

A

opsin (protein portion)

retinal (vit A derivative)

94
Q

In the visual projection pathway there is a lot of what?

A

decussation