Chapter 16: Sense Organs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16: Sense Organs Deck (94):
1

sensory receptor

a structure that detects a stimuli

2

transduction

the conversion of one form of energy to another
(stimulus energy to nerve signal)

3

sensation

an awareness of the stimulus

4

most ____ signals delivered to the CNS produce no ____ sensation

sensory; conscious

5

What are the 4 types of info transmitted by sensory receptors?

-modality
-location
-intensity
-duration

6

modality

type of stimulus or the sensation it produces
(vision, hearing, taste)

7

What does the brain use to interpret what modality a signal represents?

labeled line code

8

Why does the body have a labeled line code?

because all action potentials are the same

9

location

encoded by which nerve fibers are issuing signals to the brain

10

area that detects stimuli for a sensory neuron

receptor field

11

intensity

encoded in 3 ways
-which fibers are sending signals
-how many fibers are doing so
-how fast these fibers are firing

12

duration

how long the stimulus last

13

phasic receptors

generate a burst of action potentials when first stimulated, but then dull down after the stimulus adapts QUICKLY even though the action potential continues

14

tonic receptors

adapt slowly, generate nerve signals more steadily

15

an example of a tonic receptor is?

proprioceptors

16

How can receptors be classified? (3)

-by modality
-by distribution
-by origin of the stimuli

17

Classification of receptor?
thermoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, nocireceptors

by modality

18

Classification of receptor?
exteroceptors, interoceptors, proprioceptors

by origin of the stimuli

19

Classification of receptor?
general (somoesthetic) senses: widely distributed

by distribution

20

What are 4 types of encapsulated nerve endings?

-tactile corpuscles
-krause end bulbs
-lamellar corpuscles (phasic)
-bulbous corpuscles (tonic)

21

From receptors to final destinations, most signals travel by way of _____ neurons

3

22

first order neuron (somatosensory projection pathways)

afferent (toward CNS)

23

first order neuron
from body, enter the __ ___ of the spinal cord
from heard, enter ___ and the ____ via cranial nerves

dorsal horn
pons; medulla

24

Touch, pressure, and proprioceptors are on _______; while heat & cold are on _____

large myelinated axons; small unmyelinated axons

25

second order neurons (somatosensory projection pathways)

interneurons the decussate to opposite sides in the spinal cord

26

Where do second order neurons end up?

in the thalamus except for proprioceptors (cerebellum)

27

third order neurons (somatosensory projection pathways)

thalamus to primary cortex of cerebrum (postcentral)

28

pain

discomfort caused by tissue injury

29

nociceptors

provide different pain sensations

30

somatic pain

skin, muscle, joins

31

visceral pain

viscera organs

32

____ is the most potent pain stimulus known. ___ are released to stimulate pain fibers.

bradykinin; chemicals

33

What are the 2 projection pathways for pain?

the head, and from the neck down

34

Pain signals from the head

1st neuron: cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglion
2nd neuron: decussate & send fibers up spinothalamic tract
3rd neuron: thalamus to post central gyrus

35

Somatic pain travels via _____
Visceral, Emotional travels via _____ (reticular formation) or _____ (thalamus)

spinothalamic tract
spinoreticular tract; gracile fasciculus

36

referred pain

pain in the viscera often mistakenly thought to come from the skin or other superficial site; BRAIN IS CONFUSED

37

analgesic

pain relieving

38

neuromodulators can block what?

transmission of pain signals and produce feelings of euphoria

39

spinal gating

stops pain signals at the posterior horn of the spinal cord

40

gustation

taste (chemoreceptors)

41

taste pores

pit in which the taste hairs project

42

taste hairs are ____ not neurons

epithelial cells

43

to be tasted what must happen

molecules must dissolve in saliva and flood the taste pore

44

5 primary taste sensations

bitter, sweet, sour, umani, salty

45

2 mechanisms of action for taste

second-messenger system
depolarize cells directly

46

olfaction

sense of smell
are neurons

47

taste vs. smell

smell is are neurons not epithelial cells

48

what is the order of the olfactory projection pathway?

1.olfactory bulb
2.primary olfactory cortex
3.hippocampus

49

hearing

a response to vibrating air molecules

50

hearing and equilibrium reside in what part of the ear?

inner ear

51

outer ear

funnel for conducting vibrations to the tympanic membrane

52

middle ear

located in the air filled tympanic cavity in the temporal bone (enclosed air space)

53

auditory tube connects _____ to ____

middle ear cavity to nasopharynx

54

otitis media

middle ear infection common in children due to angle

55

inner ear (2)

filled with fluid sacs (endolymph and perilymph)
responsible for equilibrium

56

cochlea

organ of hearing
long tube

57

what are the 3 fluid filled chambers of the cochlea?

scala vestibuli (superior)
cochlear duct (middle chamber)
scala tempani inferior)

58

inner hair cells vs outer hair cells

provides for hearing (inner)
increases precision (outer)

59

static equilibrium

perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary

60

dynamic equilibrium

perception of motion of acceleration

61

oval window send _____ vs the round window

frequencies

62

neuromodulators can block what?

transmission of pain signals and produce feelings of euphoria

63

spinal gating

stops pain signals at the posterior horn of the spinal cord

64

gustation

taste (chemoreceptors)

65

taste pores

pit in which the taste hairs project

66

taste hairs are ____ not neurons

epithelial cells

67

to be tasted what must happen

molecules must dissolve in saliva and flood the taste pore

68

cones

color and day vision

69

2 mechanisms of action for taste

second-messenger system
depolarize cells directly

70

olfaction

sense of smell
are neurons

71

taste vs. smell

smell is are neurons not epithelial cells

72

what is the order of the olfactory projection pathway?

1.olfactory bulb
2.primary olfactory cortex
3.hippocampus

73

hearing

a response to vibrating air molecules

74

hearing and equilibrium reside in what part of the ear?

inner ear

75

outer ear

funnel for conducting vibrations to the tympanic membrane

76

middle ear

located in the air filled tympanic cavity in the temporal bone (enclosed air space)

77

auditory tube connects _____ to ____

middle ear cavity to nasopharynx

78

otitis media

middle ear infection common in children due to angle

79

inner ear (2)

filled with fluid sacs (endolymph and perilymph)
responsible for equilibrium

80

cochlea

organ of hearing
long tube

81

what are the 3 fluid filled chambers of the cochlea?

scala vestibuli (superior)
cochlear duct (middle chamber)
scala tempani inferior)

82

inner hair cells vs outer hair cells

provides for hearing (inner)
increases precision (outer)

83

static equilibrium

perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary

84

dynamic equilibrium

perception of motion of acceleration

85

oval window send _____ vs the round window

frequencies

86

calcium carbonate protein granules that add to the weight and inertia to enhance sense of gravity

otoliths

87

movement in semicircular canals?

direction of motion

88

optic disc

blind spot

89

farsightedness

eye is too short

90

nearsightedness

eye is too long

91

rods

help with night vision

92

rods contain visual pigmented ______

rhodopsin

93

2 major parts of rhodopsin

opsin (protein portion)
retinal (vit A derivative)

94

In the visual projection pathway there is a lot of what?

decussation