Chapter 1-4 In Class Quiz Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1-4 In Class Quiz Questions Deck (36):
1

Name the enzyme that breaks down sucrose.

Sucrase

2

Define: Amphipathic

Having polar and non-polar regions

3

3 components of a nucleotide?

Nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and a phosphate group

4

Where is the K+ concentration highest? Inside or outside the cell? Why?

Inside the cell b/c of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump.

5

What is the term we use for the electrical gradient across a cell membrane?

membrane potential

6

Where would you expect a cell receptor for a protein horomone to be? Why?

an integral protein of the plasma membrane, because proteins cannot ge tthrough the membrane w/o a special transport mechanism

7

What is clathrin?

a protein that covers the membrane at the side where receptor-mediated endocytosis will take place (Figure 3-10)

8

What are the two major phagocytic cell types?

Neutrophils and Macrophages - both white blood cells

9

What is the name of the process by which material moves out of the cell in vesicles?

Exocytosis

10

Name the three types of cytoskeletal filaments:

Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules

11

What do you call the type of bond that is formed when two or more atoms share electrons?

covalent bond

12

Define the term: Ion

an atom that has a postive or negative charge due to an unequal number of protons and electrons

13

What do you call a positively charged ion?

Cation

14

What do you call a negatively charged ion?

Anion

15

What is the term for the sum of all the reactions in the body?

Metabolism

16

What is the term for the breakdown reactions?

Catabolism

17

What is the term for the buildup reactions?

Anabolism

18

What are the four most common elements in the body?

Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogent

19

Is water polar or non-polar? Give a reason for your answer.

Polar, because of unequal distribution of charge

20

What is an enzyme?

A biological catalyst

21

What do enzymes do?

speed of biological reactions

22

What cell organelle is responsible for making ATP?

Mitochondria

23

What is the significance of ATP in the body?

Energy storage and release (stores energy in 3rd phosphate bond)

24

What is the major stored form of carbohydrates in animals?

Glycogen (mostly in liver and muscles)

25

What would you call a molecule that has a glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids attached?

A triglyceride

26

Which type of junction allows for communication between cells?

Gap Junctions

27

What transmembrane proteins are present in adherens junctions and desmosomes?

Cadherins

28

What type of product does a serous gland secrete?

watery (aqueous) secretions -- often containing enzymes

29

What is the name of the unsulfated glycosaminoglycan present in synovial fluid?

Hyaluronic acid

30

What makes it possible for glycosaminoglycans to draw water into the extracellular matrix?

Glycosaminoglycans are covered in negatively charged sulfate groups

31

Name two proteins present in elastic fibers?

Elastin and Fibrillin

32

What is the name of the disease where there is a mutation in one of the proteins in elastic fibers and which protein?

Marfan's syndrome, fibrillin

33

Describe the path of a newly synthesized protein from a ribosome to the outside of the cell?

Ribosome to ER to cis face of golgi to medial golgi cisternae to tarns face of golgi to secretory vesicles which fuze with the cell membrane to allow the protein to exit via exocytosis

34

If a lysosome ruptured and released digestive enzymes into the cytosol, why would these enzymes not destroy the cell?

The enzymes require a very low pH (specifically 3.04) to work. A low pH value is below 7.

35

What type of molecule is an eicosanoid?

lipid

36

Name 3 types of cartilage?

Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, Elastic Cartilage