Flashcards in Chapter 1-4 In Class Quiz Questions Deck (36):
Name the enzyme that breaks down sucrose.
Having polar and non-polar regions
3 components of a nucleotide?
Nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and a phosphate group
Where is the K+ concentration highest? Inside or outside the cell? Why?
Inside the cell b/c of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump.
What is the term we use for the electrical gradient across a cell membrane?
Where would you expect a cell receptor for a protein horomone to be? Why?
an integral protein of the plasma membrane, because proteins cannot ge tthrough the membrane w/o a special transport mechanism
What is clathrin?
a protein that covers the membrane at the side where receptor-mediated endocytosis will take place (Figure 3-10)
What are the two major phagocytic cell types?
Neutrophils and Macrophages - both white blood cells
What is the name of the process by which material moves out of the cell in vesicles?
Name the three types of cytoskeletal filaments:
Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
What do you call the type of bond that is formed when two or more atoms share electrons?
Define the term: Ion
an atom that has a postive or negative charge due to an unequal number of protons and electrons
What do you call a positively charged ion?
What do you call a negatively charged ion?
What is the term for the sum of all the reactions in the body?
What is the term for the breakdown reactions?
What is the term for the buildup reactions?
What are the four most common elements in the body?
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogent
Is water polar or non-polar? Give a reason for your answer.
Polar, because of unequal distribution of charge
What is an enzyme?
A biological catalyst
What do enzymes do?
speed of biological reactions
What cell organelle is responsible for making ATP?
What is the significance of ATP in the body?
Energy storage and release (stores energy in 3rd phosphate bond)
What is the major stored form of carbohydrates in animals?
Glycogen (mostly in liver and muscles)
What would you call a molecule that has a glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids attached?
Which type of junction allows for communication between cells?
What transmembrane proteins are present in adherens junctions and desmosomes?
What type of product does a serous gland secrete?
watery (aqueous) secretions -- often containing enzymes
What is the name of the unsulfated glycosaminoglycan present in synovial fluid?
What makes it possible for glycosaminoglycans to draw water into the extracellular matrix?
Glycosaminoglycans are covered in negatively charged sulfate groups
Name two proteins present in elastic fibers?
Elastin and Fibrillin
What is the name of the disease where there is a mutation in one of the proteins in elastic fibers and which protein?
Marfan's syndrome, fibrillin
Describe the path of a newly synthesized protein from a ribosome to the outside of the cell?
Ribosome to ER to cis face of golgi to medial golgi cisternae to tarns face of golgi to secretory vesicles which fuze with the cell membrane to allow the protein to exit via exocytosis
If a lysosome ruptured and released digestive enzymes into the cytosol, why would these enzymes not destroy the cell?
The enzymes require a very low pH (specifically 3.04) to work. A low pH value is below 7.
What type of molecule is an eicosanoid?