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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Study Guide Deck (18):

Define Term: Anatomy

The process of studying structures and relating them to function (ana= up, tomy= process of cutting)


Define Term: Physiology

The science of body functions


Order the levels of structural organization of the body from simplest to most complex:

chemical, molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal


Order these levels off structoral organization from simplest to most complex: organismal, tissue, cellual, system, chemical, organ, molecular

chemical, molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal


Name the major components and functions of the integumentary system:

Skin and associated structures (hair, fingernails, toenails, sweat glands, oil glands)

Protects body, helps regulate body temperature, eliminates some wastes, helps make vitamin D, detects sensations


Name the major components and functions of the muscular system:

Skeletal muscle tissue ( muscle usually attached to bones)

Maintains posture, participates in body movements, produces heat


Name the major components and functions of the skeletal system:

Bones, joints, cartilages

Supports and protects body, provides surface area for muscle attachments, houses cells that produce blood cells, aids movement, stores minerals and lipids


Define Term: Metabolism

The sum of chemical processes in the body


Define Term: Anabolism

the building up of complex chemical substances


Define Term: Catabolism

the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler substances


Define Term: Responsiveness

An action or movement due to the application of a stimulus.


Define Term: Growth

When used to describe the growth of cell populations, cell growth refers to the growth and division of the "mother cell" into two "daughter cells".


Define Term: Hypertrophy

The enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its constituent cells


Define Term: Hyperplasia

(Science: pathology) The abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue.


Define Term: Atrophy

(Science: pathology) a wasting Away, a diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, organ or pa


Define Term: Homeostatis

Maintenance of steady states in the body by co-ordinated physiological processes or feedback mechanisms.


Define Term: Negative Feedback

Negative feedback is a reaction that causes a decrease in function. It occurs in response to some kind of stimulus. Often it causes the output of a system to be lessened; so, the feedback tends to stabilize the system. Ex. When blood pressure gets too high, signals are sent to the brain to signal the heart to slow down.


Define Term: Positive Feedback

A feedback mechanism resulting in the amplification or growth of the output signal. One example of biological positive feedback is at the onset of contractions in childbirth. When contraction occurs, oxytocin is released into the body stimulating more contractions. Thus, the result is an increased amplitude and frequency of contractions.