Lecture Exam 3 - Joints Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 3 - Joints Study Guide Deck (25):
1

Define Term: Joint

joints hold bones together but permit movement, structural classification is based on the presence or absense of a synovial (joint) cavity and type of connective tissue, classified as fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial

2

Define Term: Articulation

-a joint or juncture between bones or cartilages in the skeleton of a vertebrate -a movable joint between rigid parts of an animal

3

Define Term: Arthrology

study of joints

4

Define Term: Kinesiology

study of motion

5

Structural Classification of Joints: Fibrous. Define and Give Examples.

-lack a synovial cavity -bones held closely together by fibrous connective tissue -little of no movement (synarthroses or amphiarthroses) -3 structure types: sutures in the skull, syndesmoses like tibifibular joint and interosseous membrane, gomphoses like teeth in alveolar processes

6

Structural Classification of Joints: Cartilaginous. Define and Give Examples.

-Lacks a synovial cavity -Allows little or no movement -Bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage -2 types: synchondroses (epiphyseal plate or joins between ribs and sternum) and smyphyses (intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis

7

Structural Classification of Joints: Synovial. Define and Give Examples.

-Synovial cavity separates articulating bones -Freely moveable (diarthrosis) -Articular cartilage reduces friction and absorbs shock -Articular capsule surrounds joint, thickenings in firbrous capsule called ligaments -Synovial membrane at inner lining of capsule e.g. knees

8

Define Term: Synarthroses

Immovable (joint classification)

9

Define Term: Amphiarthrosis

Slightly moveable (joint classification)

10

Define Term: Diarthrosis

Freely Moveable (joint classification -- represents about 90% of joints in the body)

11

Know the basic components of a synovial joint:

joint space is synovial joint cavity (synovial fluid is viscous b/c of hyaluronic acid) Articular cartilage covering ends of bones -articular capsule surrounds the diarthrosis, encloses the synovial cavity and unites the articualting bones. The articular capsule is composed as two layers -- the outer fibrous capsuel and the inner synovial membrane.

A image thumb
12

Know the difference between a joint sprain and a joint strain.

sprain: -twisting of joint that stretches or tears ligaments -no dislocation of the bones -may damage nearby blood vessels, muscles or tendons -swelling & hemorrhage from blood vessels often occurs in ankle if frequently sprained Strain: -generally less serious injury -overstretched or partially torm muscle

13

What is a bursa?

-fluid-filled saclike extensions of the join capsule -reduce friction between movign structures (skin rubs over bone, tendon rubs over bone)

14

What is bursitis?

chronic inflamation of a bursa (very painful)

15

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Flexion

Flexion results in a decrease in the angle between articulating bones. Lateral flexion involved the movement of the trunk sideways to the right or left at the waist.

16

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Extension

results in the increase in the angle between articulating bones

17

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Hyperextension

is a continuation of the extension beyond the anatomical position and is usually prevented by the arrangement of ligaments and the anatomical alignment of bones

18

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Abduction

Abduction refers to the movement of a bone away from the midline

19

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Adduction

adduction refers to the movement of a bone toward the midline

20

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Rotation

in rotation, a bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis

21

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Pronation

is a movement of the forearm at the proximal and distal radioulnar joints in which the distal end fo the radius corsses over the distal end of the ulna and the palm is turned posteriorly or inferiorly

22

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Supination

is a movement of the forearm at the proximal and sital radiulnal joins in which the palm is turned anteriorly or superiorly

23

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Dislocation

A joint dislocation, or luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation. Dislocations are often caused by sudden trauma on the joint like an impact or fall. A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.

24

Be capable of describing the meaning of the following terms with respect to joint movement: Luxation

A joint dislocation, or luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet. A partial dislocation is referred to as a subluxation. Dislocations are often caused by sudden trauma on the joint like an impact or fall. A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.

25

Know the different types of synovial joints

1) Plantar Joints: permit mainly side-to-side and back and forth gliding movements. E.g. intercarpal or intertarsal joints, sternoclavicular joint, vertebrocostal joints 2)Hinge Joints: contains the convex surface of one bone fitting into the concave surface of another bone. Movement is primarily extension or flexion in a single plane. E.g. knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints 3) Pivot Joints: a round or pointed surface of one bone fits into a ring formed by another bone and a ligament. Movement is rotational and nonaxial. E.g. Proximal radioulnar joint (supination and pronation), aflanto-axial joint (shaking head "no") 4)Condyloid joints: an oval-shaped condyle of one bone fits into an elliptical cavity of another bone. Movements are flexion-extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction. E.g. wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints for digits 2 to 5. 5) Saddle joint: one bone whose carticular surface is saddle shaped, and another bone whose articular surface is shaped like a rider sitting in the saddle. Movements are flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and circumduction. E.g. trapezium of carpus and metacarpal of the thumb. 6) Ball and Socket Joint: the ball-shaped surface of one bone fits into the cuplike depression of another. Movements are flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, rotation, and circumduction. E.G. shoulder joint and hip joint (only these!)