Flashcards in Lecture Exam 2 Quiz Questions Deck (60):
Name the three major pigments that contribute to skin color
Melanin, Hemoglobin, and Carotene
State 3 ways that skin can contribute to thermoregulation
1) liberating sweat
2) Raising and lower hairs
3) dialating/constricting the capillaries to regulate blood flow to the surface of the body
Sebaceous glands release the whole secretory cell with the secretory product. What is the term for this method of secretion?
Where do you find the most sebaceous glands?
At the base of hair follicles
What protein cross-links elastin molecules together to give elastic fibers their ability to stretch and relax?
What is the difference between a proteoglycan and a glycosaminoglycan?
A glycosaminoglycan is a repeating dissacharide. A proteoglycan has a core protein w/ glycosaminoglycans attached to it.
What are the main resident cells of connective tissue?
You are looking at a histological section of muscle that has striations and peripheral nuclei. What type of muscle are you viewing?
What type of connective tissue molecule is dermatin sulfate?
What type of molecule is keratin?
a cytoskeletal protein -- intermediate filament (present in skin)
What does the term hypertrophy mean?
To increase in size (hyperplasia = to increase in number)
Where owuld you find Langerhan'd cells and what do they do?
In the skin - resident dendritic cells that serve an immune function
What vitamin is activated by UV light in the skin?
What does the term serous mean?
Serous membranes line one body cavities that do not open directly to the exterior -- watery secretions rather than mucousy
Cutaneous membrane is another term for what organ?
What is osteoid?
unmineralized bone matrix made of calcium phosphate and matrix molecules. Mineralized matrix = calcium hydroxyapitite
Where do you find osteogenic cells?
In the periosteum and endosteum
What is it that cartilage does not repair?
Avascular, chondrogenic (cartilage producing cells) cannot be brought in after damage)
What do you call the immature cells in cartilage
How would you classify articular cartilage
What feature of cartilage matrix allows it to resist compressive forces?
Presence of GAGs w/ sulfated side chains that draw in water due to their negative charge (and collagen makes it strong)
What do you call the mature cells in bone?
What are cannaliculi?
Channels where processes from osteocytes can meet up and form gap junctions
What do you call the concentric rings of bones that are laid down in osteons?
What do you call the spaces where adult bone and cartilage cells reside?
What do you call the "hole" in the middle of an osteon?
Central, osteonal, or haversian canal
What is present in the central canal?
Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels
Why does compact bone need to be arranged into osteons?
to allow for osteocytes to recieve nutrients and oxygen. Hard for these to diffuse through mineralized matrix. Allows for bone regeneration.
What is the generalized term for reduced bone density?
Name an autoimmune disease that causes degeneration in joints? What does autoimmune mean?
Rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmune = immune system attacking body
Name the 5 layers in the epidermis from most superficial to deepest?
Are sweat glands exocrine or endocrine? Why?
Exocrine -- secrete via ducts
Do you find blood vessels in the dermis?
Do you find blood vessels in the epidermis?
What are the 2 layers of the dermis, form the most superficial to the deepest?
What cells produce pigment and where are they?
Melanocytes. Basal Layer of epidermis.
What are the most abundant cells in the epidermis?
What do we not grow taller after puberty?
our growth plates close
Why can broken bones heal?
Our bones remodel constantly
When a bone breaks, what type of tissue fills the space first?
Fibrocartilage (fibrous callus -- connective tissue)
What do fractures heal faster in children?
Cells more active, more osteogenic cells, everything faster
What dietary recommendations would you give to help prevent osteoporosis?
Vitamin D and calcium taken togehter. Weight bearing exercise.
Name the cells responsible for breaking down bones
What is the developmental lineage of osteoclasts?
bone marrow =>monocyte => osteoclasts
What do osteoclasts look like?
Pacman ghosts. Multinucleate.
What is the most important horomone in maintaining calcium homeostasis?
What is the most important vitamin in maintaining Calcium homeostasis?
State 4 organ systems important in maintaining calcium homestasis:
skeletal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, integumentary, urinary
Name some important functions of calcium in the body:
- neurotransmitter release
- membrane permeability
- muscle contraction
- enzyme activation
- intracellular second messenger
- hormone release
- blood coagulation
- bone formation
- cell motility
- cell secretion
- cellular differentiation
From what cells do osteocytes develop?
Mesenchymal stem cells => osteogenic cell => osteoblast => osteocyte
Why is compact bone organized into osteons?
to allow osteocytes to recieve adequate nutrition
Give 2 examples of bone modeling
-Shape longbones during development
-shape changes during development, e.g. tooth fracture repair
Where do you find an epiphyseal plate?
developing long bones
How do the bones fo the cranium develop?
Define the Method of Secretion: Merocrine Glands
or (eccrine glands) - cells excrete their substances by exocytosis; for example, pancreatic acinar cells.
Define the Method of Secretion: Apocrine Glands
a portion of the plasma membrane buds off the cell, containing the excretion.
Define the Method of Secretion: Holocrine Glands
the entire cell disintegrates to excrete its substance; for example, sebaceous glands of the skin and nose.
Define term: trabeculae
Thin columns of bone that make up spongy bone
Sudiferous (sweat) glands use what method of secretion?
Merocrine, secrete via exocytosis