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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (53):
1

cell

organized chemical system that includes many specialized molecules surrounded by a membrane

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emergent properties

characteristics that depend on the level of organization of matter but no dot exist at lower levels of organization

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unicellular organisms

single cells such as bacteria and protozoans

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multicellular organisms

plants and animals (cells live in tightly coordinated groups and are interdependent)

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population

group of organisms of the same kind that live together

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community

all populations of different organisms that live in the same place

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ecosystem

includes the community and the nonliving environmental factors with which it interacts

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biosphere

encompasses all the ecosystems of the Earth's waters, crust and atmosphere

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deoxyribonucleic acid

most fundamental and important molecule that distinguishes living organisms from nonliving matter

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ribonucleic acid

directs the synthesis of different protein molecules

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proteins

carry out most of the activities of life, including the synthesis of all other biological molecules

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metabolism

ability of a cell or organism to extract energy from its surrounding and use that energy to maintain itself, grow and reproduce

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photosynthesis

when plants take electromagnetic energy in sunlight absorbed and convert it into chemical energy

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cellular respiration

complex biological molecules are broken down with oxygen, releasing some of their energy content for cellular activities

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primary producers

photosynthetic organisms

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consumers

organisms that feed on the complex molecules manufactured by plants

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decomposers

feed on dead organisms, breaking down complex biological molecules into simpler raw materials which may be recycled by producers

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homeostasis

steady internal condition maintained by responses that compensate for changes in the external environment

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reproduction

parents creating offspring

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inheritance

passing DNA from one generation to the next

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development

series of programmed changes encoded in DNA through which eggs develop into an adult that can reproduce

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life cycle

stages in which individuals grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce

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biological evolution

populations changing from generation to generation by passing genes that better fit environment

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artificial selection

humans purposely breeding organisms for certain traits

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natural selection

same as above but in nature

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genes

functional units of DNA

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scientific name

first part is genus, second part is genus

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family

related genes

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order

related families

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class

related orders

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phylum

related classes

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kingdom

related phyla

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domain

most exclusive group

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phylogenetic trees

illustrations of evolution pathways

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prokaryotes

bacteria and archaea(dna is not separated from rest of cell)

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eukaryotes

all other organisms(dna is separate from cell structures)

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organelles

specialized internal compartments of eukaryotic cells

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protists

group of diverse single-celled and multi-cellular eukaryotic species, do not share common ancestry

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kingdom platae

multicellular organisms that carry out photosynthesis

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kingdom fungi

highly varied group of unicellular and multicellular species that mostly live as decomposers, no phootsynthesis

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kingdom animalia

multicellular organisms that are consumers and can actively move from one place to another in one life cycle

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biological research

effort to understand the living world

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basic research

seeking explanations to satisfy curiosity and to advance collective knowledge

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applied research

solving particular problems

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scientific method

making observations, developing an explanation and then testing those explanations

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observational data

basic information on biological structures or processes

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experimental data

information obtained by manipulating system under study

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hypothesis

explanation

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null hypothesis

statement that would prove hypothesis false

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variables

environmental factors that differ among organisms and environments

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control

shows what happened if system not changed

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replicates

multiple subjects tested with same results

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model organisms

animals biologists work on because they have rapid development, short life cycles, and small adult size