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Flashcards in Review Deck (383):
1

sex linked trait

when a trait happens more likely in males than females because they have less x chromosones

2

homogametic sex vs heterogamic sex

homo only produces one type of gamete

3

microfilmanets are made of

actin

4

latent phase

inactive form; no viral particles can be detected

5

telephase

nuclearu envole forms

6

lysosome

breaks down stuff

7

the mitotic spindle originates from the

centrioles

8

hfr cells

donor that can transfer genes on the bacterial chromosome to a recepient

9

what function group is a component of the hydrophilic sruface

phospahte

10

chrormoes that appear from all over the world are an enxample of

gene flow

11

plants are green because they haave molecules that ___ green light

reflect

12

m phase promoting factor

initationes mitos and orchestrates some of the key events

13

karyotype is preapred by arresting cells during the _____ phase of ____

metaphase, mitosis

14

eveloped viruss

covered by a surface membrane derived from the plasm membrane of their hosts

15

what is translation

the process that uses infromation from rna to make a peptide

16

phophataose

removes a phosphate group from a protein

17

poly a polymerase

enzye that adds chain of a nulceotides to the 3' end of pre-mrna

18

reinforcement

natural selection favoriting indivudas that mate only with members of their own population

19

physiology

responses of organs to chagne in evnerionetn

20

which organisms dont depend on mitocondria

bactera

21

golgi apparatus

receives products of er, sends products to secretry vesicels

22

nucleic acids

phosphodiester bonds

23

neutral variation hypothesis

some of the geneitc variaton at loci coding for eznyems and other proteins is selectively netural

24

tissues, nervous and endocrine cells

secretory, ductless

25

peroxisomses

fatty acid oxidation

26

what do the lgiht reactions make

atp and nadph

27

what does rapid ferizliation signifyc?

ca2+ release

28

prometaphase

microtubules attach to chomosones

29

drawins quqnitn leap said

descent with modificaion

30

the mitotic spindle is conmposed of ____

microtubules

31

multipotent

can give rise to cells with particular functions

32

cohesion

high resistance of water maolecules to separted provided by hydogen bonding lattice

33

sex/f pilus

long tubular structure on the cell surface that allows an f+ cell to attach a f- recepient

34

blastomeres

cells craeted from cleavage

35

glands

cell or group of cells that produces and releases substances nearby

36

prezygotic isolation mechanicsm

live in diff habitits, mate at diff times, signals used by or on species are not regocnized by another, differences in reproducive organs, incompability between sperm of two speices

37

cartenoids

yellow orange pigments that absorb light

38

lytic cycle

host cell is kille din each cycle of infection

39

photoautoprosp

autotrophs that perform photsynethes

40

bonds in carbs

glycosidc

41

ahedsion

molecules stick to walls of tubes by forming hydrogen bods

42

systematic homeostatic controls

initaitied outsdie an organ or organ system

43

during gastrolation

3 main tissues layers form

44

degeneracy

multiple codons for the same amino acids

45

what does er do

starting site for protein synthesis, quality control, vesicles bud off and carry cargo to golgi, ca2+ storage

46

ligand gated ion channels

open or close in response of binding a ligand; transmembere channel, intracellular electrical signal, ,

47

transcription vs translation

transcription is when the informanced encoded in dna is made into a complementaryrna copy and translation if the use of inform in rna to make a polypeptide

48

endocrine glands

suspended in connective tissue underlying the epithelium with no ducts

49

acidic amino acid has?

oxygens

50

epithelial tissue

sheet like layers of cells that are usually connected by tight junctions with little ecm material between them

51

nonpolar amino acids have

-ch2, ch3

52

chromosome theory of inherticane

genes and their alleles are carried on the chromosomes

53

splicesome

location where splicing takes place

54

polygenic inheritanve

one characteristic is the controleed by 2 or more genes

55

polar amino acids have

oxygens

56

differetianl fate of the first two cells is due to

materinal factors

57

operator

short segment to which a regulartory protein binds

58

nuclues

contians dna packaged as chromatin, site of rna and dna synthesis, site of ribosome assembly, nucleur envoleope double bilipid layer

59

electron trasnport chain

34 atp

60

replica plating

bacterial colonies grown on a plate with a complete medium

61

which receptor is associated with growh factor

tyrosine kinase

62

founder effect

change in allele frequences because small group goes to new area and only their alleles are passed on

63

epiletical tissues are descibed as

stratifed

64

topiomerase

regulates the unwinding

65

cell layers of embryo

ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

66

trsction factors bind to dna at

promoters and enchangers

67

what does glycolysis yield

2 molecules of pyruvic acid and 2 molecules of atp , 1 water, 2 nadh + 2 electrons

68

photorespiraton

process from oxygenase reaction of rubisco to the release of co2

69

what is polarity (in a yolk egg)

unequal distribution

70

phospholipid bilayer

phosphate, glycerol, fatty acid..r group?

71

new mutuations in allele frequesnces are often recognzed as

dominant dieseases

72

ribosome proteins are syntheises in

the free ribosomes in the cytosol

73

agarose gel electrophoresis

separates dna, rna, and protein molecules based off size

74

sex influenced trait

when only males get a disesae even though females have the same genotype

75

things that make proteins unfold

high temp, change in ph , high salt

76

dna pakagin is promoted by ____ proteins that packages dna into ____

hitone, nucleosomes

77

small changes ina llel freq

microevolution

78

glycosidic bonds

bond between the number 1 an dnumber 4 arbon on a glucose unit; links monosaccarides

79

glycerol

sugar acohol, carb

80

conformers

internal environments that match the external environment

81

exocrine glands

remain connected to the epithelium by a duct which empies at the epithelial surface

82

principle of independent assortment

alleles of genes that govern different characerists are assorted independently

83

heterozygous advantage

heterozygtes for a particular locus have higher relative fitness thaneither homozygote

84

poly a tail

added at the end of rna transcription, protects from degradataion

85

reactants of cell resp

oxygena nd glucose

86

acetylinat and methylatino of histones account for

epigentic expression of genes from mother or father

87

phylogenic speices conecpt

the concept of a species as an irredcibel group whose members are descended from a common ancestor and who all posses a combination of certain defining, or derived traits

88

frequencey depndt selection

rare phenotype will increase in frequencey because it has a higher relative fitness until it becomes so common it loses its advantage

89

lysons have _ ph and

low

90

induction

one group of cells causes another nearby group to follow a particular developmetn

91

ribosomes

ribonulceoprotein participes taht carry out protein synthesi by translating mrna into chains of amino acids
- read codon and attaches proper amino acids

92

____ directly or indirect amplify a signal received

second messagerss

93

chaperone proteins

asist folding

94

peroxisome

breakdown of long fatty acids through bet oxidation

95

bonds in lipids

fatty acyl, diglycerids

96

orthogenesis

progressive; goal oritented evolution

97

macroevolution

larger scale evolutionary changes observed in speces and more inclusive groups; gradual accumulation of microevolutionary traits

98

anchoring junction

proteins extend through membrane

99

atp is made of

phosphate groups, ribose, adenine

100

biological species concept

if two populations interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural condidiotns then they belong to the same speices

101

____lines the cell membrane

actin...microfilaments

102

a karyotype is most likely to show

the presence of polysomy

103

crossing over occurs during _____

meisosis 1

104

where is the electron transport chain in mitocondria?

inner membrance

105

genotype

genetic makeup of cell whcih determinds a speciic characteristic (phenotype) of that cell

106

kinase

adds a phosphate group

107

coactivator

large multiprotein complex that forms a bridge between the activators at the enchancer and the proteins at the promoter causeing dna tof form a loop

108

movement of sister chromatids occurs during

anaphase

109

fatty acid

-ch chain

110

genetic imprinting

certain genes are only expressed if they came from a certain parent. if a gene is imprinted , it is silenced

111

molecular phylogenics

using dna or amino acid sequence comparisons to determine evolutionary relationships among organmism

112

hormone

molecule produced by one tissue and transported via the bloodstream to a target tissue

113

startin with 2ng of dna, four cycles of pcr would yield __ of dna

32, 2^4

114

kinase

catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from high energy phosohate donating molecules

115

during transcription the ____ strand is the template for rna synthesis and is ____ to the nwly synthesiszed rna

antisense, completeatry

116

biological species concert can be identified based on their

abilyt to produce offsring

117

selective cell adhestions

cells make and break specific connections to other cells

118

nondisjunction

failure of homologues chromosonses to separete properly during cell divison

119

three sets that extract energy in the form of atp nadph and fadh2 are

glycolsis, pyriuviate, krebs cycle

120

helicase

unwinds the dna

121

things that make proteins misfold

mutation, absence of cofact, covalent modifcations

122

steroid hormone receptors

found in the nucleus,cytosol, and also the plasma membrane, they are generally intracellular and initatie signal transduction

123

kinks in the fatty acid chain arise from

cis saturated fatty acids

124

chemiosimoss

movment of ions across a membrane,down tehir electrochemical gradient; it relates to the gneration of atp by the movemnet of h+ ions across a membrane

125

sturctures near the head are

anterior

126

metaphase

alignment

127

basal surface

inner surface that adheres to a layer of ecm secreted by epithelial cells called the basal lamina

128

cell respiration steps

glycolys, pyruvate ox, citric acid, phosphorylation

129

capsid

dna or rna genome surrounded by protein coat

130

integrator

control center that receives inform from the sensor and compares it to a set point

131

transduction(virus)

dna is trnsfrered to recepient bacterial cells by an infecting phase

132

what is sem microscope

electrons bounce off surface..looks like x ray

133

isomerizaition

one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms

134

telomere

region of nucleotide sequences which protects the end of a chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes

135

where is the electron transport chain in chloroplasts?

thykaloid memrance

136

pleitrophy

when one gene influences two or more seeminly unrelated traits

137

oxalocaetate

molecule at the end and begining of the ctric acid cycle

138

specialized transduction

incorporate fragments of the bacterial genome as they make the transition from lysogenic cycel to the lytic cycel

139

polysomy

condition in which an organism has one more chromosome than normal

140

species can be distinguies by their

body structures

141

pluripotent

can give rise to most adult cells

142

comapritive genomics

comparison of entire genomes to understand evolutionary relationships and the basic biological similatrites and differences among species

143

alternative splicing

resutls in the production of different peptides

144

kinetechore

protein structure that forms on chromatid during cell division and allows it to attach to spindle fiber

145

f factor

plasmid in a donor bacterial cell that confers upon the cell the ability to conjugate with a recepient bacterial cell

146

parts of an amino acid

r group, carboxyl, amino group, hydrogen

147

lactate fermentation

convererts pyurave into lactacte

148

microevolution

small scale genetic changes that populations undergon; often responses to environmental circumstances

149

sporophytes

organisms where fertilizatoin produces the diploid generation

150

strict aerobics

require oxygen

151

what has a double lipid membrace

nucleus, mitocondria

152

alcoholic femrentaiton

pyruvate is coverted into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide

153

what is an important second messenger in the post ferilizatoion period

ca2+ ions

154

what biological molecules is the lipid bilayer primarly composed of

proteins and lipids

155

what is denaturation

unfolded proteins

156

what is cilia and flagella made of?

microtubules

157

translation intitiaton begins with assocation of

mrna and small ribosomoanl unit

158

codominance

both traits exist in daughter

159

horizontal gene transfer

movement of genetic mateiral between organism other than by descent

160

gap junction

connect the cytoplasm of two cells

161

g protein coupled receptors

7 transmembrane helices,

162

complex virus

having a tail attached at one side of a polyhedral ehead

163

dna polymeriaze iii

extends primer by adding dna nucleotides

164

reverese transcriptase

generates complementary dna from an rna template

165

start codon

aug

166

diff between enchancer and promoter

distance from tata box

167

a gene is

oen gene ecnodes at leaset one rna

168

complete medium

same as minimum except has amino acids tand other chemicals that strains can nomrally make for themelves

169

dna methylation

represses gene trascription

170

microfilamments are used for

disambely, integryi to plasma membrance, cell crawling,a nd phagocytosis

171

hypertonic solution

solute is less outsdie because all the water went inside the cell to dilute it

172

what is the role of nadh

contributes electrons to the electron transport chain as it is oxidiezed

173

qualitative variation

exist in two or more discrete states; intermediate forms are often absent

174

what does the cirtric acid cycle yield

2 atp, 8 nadh with electrons, 2 fadh and 6 carbon dioxide

175

acetylation

promosees loose chromaticn struction, permits trasncription

176

cytokinessis is a result of contraction of which filmament or microtubule?

microfilaments

177

quantitative trait

a character that displays a continuous distriution of the phenotype involved

178

local homeostatic controls

initiatited outside of an organ or organ system to control that organ's or organ systems actvity

179

peptide bond are formed between what

amino acid and carboxyl group

180

____ of chlorophyl aborb energy in the visible light range

conjugated double bond systems

181

dihybrid cross

shows 2 diff traits

182

rna polymerase binds at

promoter

183

dna microaccarrays

tiny grid that contains thousands of pieces of dna to compare a sample

184

what requires faciliated diffiused?

polar molecule like glucose

185

dna microarrarys are used for

nucleotide sequencing ni dna

186

conjugation

a copy of part of the dna of one cell that moves through the cytoplasmic bridge of the other cell

187

stop codons

uaa, uag, uga

188

functional genomics

study of the functions of genes and other parts of the genome

189

motifs

highly specialiszed regions produced by 3d arrangement of amino acid chains

190

where are barr bodies found

in female somatic cells only

191

glycolysis

enzymes break a molecule of glucose into two pyruvate molecules

192

corepressor

multiprotein complex simlar to coactivtors but inhibit transcription initaiton

193

anabolism

construct moleduces from smaller unites, requesires atp

194

three sides of polypetide forming

e, p , a sites

195

mendels law of segregation

the two allelaes segregation from each other in the formation of gametes

196

photosystem two

creates atp

197

generalized trnasfudction

host dna may e included in the heads as the viral particles assemble providing the basis for trasduction of bacterial genes during th enext cycle of infection

198

autotrophs

organisms that make s all of their own organic molecules

199

loose connective tissue

fomred of sparsely distributed cells surrounded by a more or less open network of cologne and other glycoprotein fibers

200

glycerol

c-oh

201

directoinal selection

shifts a trait away from the existing me and towared a favored extreme because they have a higher relative fitness

202

mitocondrria

site of atp synthesis, double lipid bilayer, contains dna and ribosome, proteins enter by insertino though pores

203

basic amino acid has

nitrogens

204

where are photosystem i and ii

thykaloid membrane

205

domains

large structural subdivisions folding of the amino acid chain

206

cdks

family of protein kinases regulate the cell cycle, do mrna processing, and differentation of nerve cells

207

phospholid maintins its fluidy due to

kinks caused by unsatured fatty acids

208

how do light reactions hardness energy from the sun

molecules in the photosystesm absorb radiation and their elections are excited to higher energy levels

209

where is the electron transfort hcain found in chloroplasts

thylakoid membrane

210

tralsantin termination ofccurs whenthe

a site, release factor

211

enchancer

region at a significatn distance from the beginning of a gene containeing regualry sequeces that determine where the gene is transcribed at its maximum possible rate

212

chiasma

a point at which paired chromosomes remain in contact during the first metaphase of meiosis, and at which crossing over and exchange of genetic material occur between the strands

213

aneuploid

abornmal number of chromosones

214

promoter

region of dna that initatates the transcription of a gene

215

enantiometers

mirror images of each other that cannot be superimposed on each other

216

what is atp made of

nitrogenous base adenine, sugar, and 3 phophates

217

anticodone of trna for the codon 5' acg 3'?

3' ugc 5'

218

ligasse

joins dna together

219

a is paired with

t

220

dna polymerase i

removes the rna primer at the 5' end by replacing the rna nulceotide one by one with dna nulceotides

221

temperate bacteriophages

may enter an inactive phase in which the host cell replicates and passes on the bacteriphage dna for generatesoins before the phasge beomces active and kills the host

222

agarose gell relies on

differenct charges and fidderent masse

223

homoologus structures refer to

sturcutres of siilar form and psotion in apapretnly unlreated places

224

balanced polymorphism

two or more phenotypes are maintinated in fairly stable proportions over many generations

225

difference between endocytosis and phagocytosis

phagocytos engulfs larger items; endocytosis involves taking up fluid

226

translation occurs when the _ site is occupied by a ____

a , release factor

227

starch

a lot of glucoses

228

what is tem microscope

shoots beams through tissue

229

spores

haploid, genetically different reporocetiven cells

230

fibronectin

aids in the attachment of cells to the ecm and helps hold the cells in position

231

what is a primer made of?

rna

232

what happens to oxygen in cellular respiration

it is converted to water

233

general transcription factors

bind to the pomoter in the area of the tata box to initatioe transcription

234

synaptonemal complex

protein structure that forms between homologoues chromosomes during meisosi and is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, recombination

235

southern blot analysis

restriction enzyme used to break down dna and then electrophoresis segarates the fragments, ; transferred to filter paper and probe used to dientify particular sequence

236

epistatis

one gene is dependent on another gene;epistatic mutations habe different effects in comination

237

t even bacterophages

coat divided into a head and tail

238

prioons

only knon infectious agents that do not include a nucleic acid

239

g is paired with

c

240

sympatric

cant breed

241

homologous traits

characteristics that are similar in two speces because they inhertied the same genetic basis of the trait from the same ancestor

242

set of allels at all generitic loic is known as

gene pool

243

epigentc

change in phenotype without a change in genotype

244

transcription initiation complex

combination of general transcription factors with rna polymerase ii

245

microtubules made of?

tubulin

246

antenna complex

light is abosred and turned into many chlorophyl pigmens and an umber of cartenoid pigments

247

proteases

enzymes that catalyze peptide bonds

248

stages of cell signaling

reception, transduction, response

249

modern synthesis

unifed theory of evolution

250

polyadenylation signal

sequence near 3' that specifies where the transcription should be cleaved in the pre mrna transcript of a gene

251

movemnt of sister chromatics to opposite poles of the cells occur during

anaphase

252

promoter proximal region

adjacent to the promoter and contains regulary sequences called promoter proximal elements

253

fluorensce

dye is introduced and absorbs energies at diff wavelengths

254

elastin

rubbery protein that adds elesatics to the ecm

255

polypelitdety

extra copies of compelte genomes

256

lysogenic cycle

viral dna inserts into the host cell dna and production of new viral particles is delayed

257

restriction endonuclears that product ____ are most using for clonign

sticky ends

258

barr bodies

inactive chromosome in the feamle somatic cell

259

quantitive variation

individuals differ in small incremental ways

260

rubp carboxylaces (rubisco)

enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of c02 into an organic molecule

261

what is the innermost space in a mitochondrial cell

matrix

262

centromere

area of dna at the constriction of a chromosome

263

determination

developmental fate of a cell is set

264

phosphatase

removes a phosphate group from its substrate

265

missense mutation

sense codon is changed toa different sense codon that specifies a different amino acid

266

fermentation

electrons carried by nadph are transfrered to an organic acceptor molecure rather thanthe electon transfer system

267

basic amino aicds have

nitrogens

268

synaptomenta complex does?

allows crossing over to occcur

269

what is a nucleotide made of?

sugar, phosphare, nigrogenous base

270

when is the best phase for a karyotype

during metaphase of mitosis

271

nonsense mutation

sense codon is changed to a stop codon

272

regulators

maintain factors of internal environment in a relatively constant staet

273

what happens in s phase

synthesis of dna

274

loss carb diet makes people lose weight . why?

loss of glycgen from liver cells

275

lac operaton

when lactos is present, repressor doesnt bind, dna transction occurs

276

conditions that favor change are likely to include

natural selection

277

open reading frames

start codon separated by a multiple of three nucleotides from one of the stop codons

278

primase

involved in the replication of dna... catalyzes rna synthesis rna primers.. these primers serve as the starting point for dna synthesis

279

catabolism

breaks down molectules

280

enchancer

short region of dna that can be bound by activators to activate transcription of a gene

281

produts of cell resp

water, carbon, atp

282

if hydrogen loses atoms or gains them it can be called

proton or hydride

283

secondary struction

alpha helix and beta pleated sheet

284

in cellular respir, the electron transport chain ____ as the final step in haranassing energy from biofuels

reduces oxygen

285

bacteriophages

virus that infects bacteria

286

allele

variant form of a gene, humans have two alleles at each genetic locus

287

strict anaerobes

organisms that only use fermetnation to produce atp

288

oxidtivative phosphorylation

using enzyme to oxidize nutries, which releases energy to reform atp, happens in cellular respiration

289

kingdom fungi

unicelluar and mlticellar that mostly live as decomen=psoters, no photsytnes

290

where does atp synthesis occur

mitorcondria

291

repressor

when active, prevents the operator genes from being expressed

292

proteome

complete set of proteins in a particular cell type under set condiciotns

293

f+

donor cells in nojucation because they contain the f factor

294

what processes occur in plant cell

respiration and phosotynehsys

295

the wobbly hyptohess says

more than one codon can lead to the inocortin of one amino acid

296

what is transported through a membrance t through a channel protein and proceeds down a conc gradient

water

297

saturated enzyme

the rate of reaction is the max rate

298

photosynthesis occurs in some plant cells, while cellular respiratioon occurs in all ___ cells

eukaryotic

299

_____ allows ions and small molecules to pass from one cell to another

gap junctions

300

intermediate filaments made of?

keratin

301

hardy weinberg principle

no mutations
population is closed to migration
population is infinte
all genotypes survie and reproduce qually
indiviualls mate randomly

302

incompletely dominance

white + red = pink

303

disruptive selection

extreme phenotypes have higher relative fitness than intermediate phenotypes

304

prophase

dna condenses, nuclear envelope breaks down

305

tata box

dna sequeucnes that states where a sequence can be read and encoded; type of promoter sequence

306

hydrogen bonding is not useful in

ester linkages in fats

307

prophage

the integrated viral dna

308

trna

decodes mrna onto a protein

309

substrate level phosphyration

atp is formed by the direct transfer of p03 group to adp from a phosphoryatied reactive intermedaite

310

symport

same direction

311

sexual dimorphism

differences in size of appearsece of males and females

312

postzygotic isolation mechancims

hybrid inviabilty- the organsms die early, hybrid serility- cannot reproduce, hybrid breakdown, future gnerations cannt reproduce

313

morula

solid ball or layer of blstomers

314

kington plante

multicellular organism tath carry out photsytnests

315

smooth er

lipid manufcture, and metabolism and steroid an dhormone production

316

anapahase

seaparte

317

semiconsiervatinv model of nda says

oen strande is preserved in each daughter cell

318

steroid

type of lipid derived from cholesterol

319

morphological species concept

idea that all individuals of a species share measurable traits that distinguis them from dinidivuals of other species

320

gc has _hydorgen bonds

3

321

microrna

capable of blocking translation of another rna transcript

322

sexual selection

males' competition for access to females and by females' choice of mates

323

retrovirus

eveloped virus with an rna genome that replicates via a dna intermediate

324

mitotic spindle originates from the

centrioles

325

transcription factors

protein that binds to specific dna seuqences, controlling the rate of transcription

326

hypermethylation of dna correcatins with regions of the genone that are

transpctipanlly inacctive

327

paracrine signaling

signalign in earby cells

328

when two loci are very close on a chromosone, there is a high probably that the allels will be ___

inhertied together

329

pyruvative oxidation

pyruvate converted into two carbon acetyl groups

330

what bond forms between monosasacrides

glycosidic

331

dna marker

gene or dna sequence with a known location that can be used to identify individuals or speices

332

key rate limited enzyme in glycoliss

phosphofructkinase

333

transformaiotn(virus)

bacteria take up pieces of dna that are released as other cells disintegrate

334

epithetlicial cells

filtration, absorption, transport

335

the electron trnaspot cahin is responsible for ____

transport of protons across a membrance

336

what structure gives carbs to proteins

golgi

337

purines

adenine and guanine

338

tight junction

waterproof seal

339

blastula

blosmeters encloe a fluid cavity called the blastocoel

340

polymerase

synthesis long chains of nucleic acids

341

ester

derived from carbohylix....theyre an alcohol

342

photosystem one

creates nadph

343

proteins

composed of amino acids

344

provirus

inserted viral dna

345

tyrosine kinase recepotrs

contains polypeptide tyrosine....kinase will transfer phosphate groups, gets energy from atp, can have more than 1 cellular resposne

346

what comes out of centrioles

microtubulues

347

the oxygen made in photosynthesis is obtained from

water

348

extracellular fluid

meets need of organism based off outsdie environment

349

autocrine signlaing

signaling in that same cell

350

polymorphissm

existence of discrete varations of character

351

mutase

enzyme that catalyzes the shift of a functional group from one position to another within the same molecule

352

what are the tissue layers formed at gastrulation?

octoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

353

systematin study of the passage of alelle was made by these peole

hardy and weinberg

354

master switch genes ecnode

transcritpino factosr

355

antiport

diff directions

356

developmental stages

zygote, blasticul, gastrula adult

357

initaiton of dna begins at ___

tata boxes

358

stabilitizng selection

when individuals expressing intermediate phenotypes have the highest relative fitnes

359

organogenesis

developemnt of major organ systems

360

frameshift mutation

single base pair delection or insertion that alters reading frame

361

citric acid acid cycle

acetyl group is oxidezed into carbon dioxed

362

where does translation occur

in ribosomes

363

desmosome

achroign junction

364

viroids

plant pathogens that consist soley of single stranded circular rna without a protein coat

365

the wegedge shaped rea of a fertilzed egg is the

gray crescent

366

lipid

hydrocarbon chain

367

f-

recepient cells which lack the f factor

368

citric acid cycle takes place in the ____

mitochondrial matrix

369

effector

system that is activated by the integrator to bring the condition under control back to the set point

370

totipotent

cell capable of produciving all types of cells of the adult

371

centromere

part of the chromosome that links sister chomratids

372

chlorophyls

green pigments that absorb light

373

co2 fixation

electrons are added to co2

374

virion

complete viral particle

375

the elongation of transcription is done by

rna polymerase

376

collagen

fibrous glyoprotein, rich in carb, embedded in a network of proteoglycans

377

silent mutation

sense codon is changed but the new codon still specifies the same amino acid

378

membrane proteins that mediate active and passive trasnport are geneally called ____ porteins

channel

379

r plasmids

contains genes that provide resistance to unfavorable conditions

380

cytokines

breaks aapart

381

choloroplasts

similar to mitocondria

382

a group of ribososm translationsing a single mrna is a

polyribosome

383

peptidyl transerase

catalyzes the formation of the peptide bond between the c termindal end of a polypetide on the p side and the amino acid on the a site trna