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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (63):
1

organic molecules

molecules based on carbon

2

inorganic molecules

substances without carbon atoms in their structure

3

hydrocarbons

molecules consisting of carbon linked only to hydrogen

4

functional group

reactive groups of atoms

5

hydroxyl

consists of an oxygen atom linked to a hydrogen atom on one side
polars
alcohols

6

carbonyl

consists of an oxygen linked to a carbon by a double bond
oxygen atom is very reactive
aldehydes; ketones

7

carboxyl

combination of a carbonyl and hydroxyl group
characteristic functional group of organic acids for energy generating reactions in living organisms

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amino

nitrogen bonded on one side by two hydrogen atoms
acts as an organic base

9

phosphate

central phosphorous atom held in four linkages
two are -oh
one is double bond with o
one is single bond with o

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sulfhydrl

sulfur linked to a hydrogen

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isomer

molecules that have the same chemical formula but different molecular structures

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enantiomers/optical isomers

isomers that are mirror images

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structural isomers

molecules of same chemical formula but atoms are arranged in different ways

14

dehydration

when components of water molecule are removed

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hydrolysis

when components of water are added to the function groups as molecules are broken into smaller subunits

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glycogen

energy providing carbohydrates in animal cells

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starch

energy providing carbohydrates in plant cells

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cellulose

one of the primary constituents of plant cell walls made of chains of carbohydrate subunits

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monosaccarides

smallest carbohydrates that contant 3-7 carbon atoms

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polysaccarides

10 or more linked monosaccarides

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glycosidic bonds

bonds between the number 1 carbon and the 4 carbon of a second glucose unit which link monosaccarides

22

neutral lipids

found in cells as energy storage molecules
insoluble in water

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fatty acids

single hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end

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saturated fatty acid

max number of hydrogen

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unsaturated fatty acid

one or more double bonds between c atoms

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monounsaturated

one double bond

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polyunsaturated

more than one double bond

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triglyceride

fatty acids bind by dehydration synthesis at each of a glycerols

29

waxes

fatty acids combined with long-chain alcohols or hydrocarbon structures

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phospholipids

phosphate containing lipids
primary lipids of cell membranes
half polar half nonpolar

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steroids

lipids with structures based on framework of 4 carbon rings

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sterols

most abundant steroids that have a single polar -oh group at one end

33

cholesterol

in boundary membrane surrounding animal cells

34

phytosterols

in plant membranes

35

enzymes

increase the rate of cellular reactions

36

amino acids

molecule that contains both an animo group and a carboxyl group

37

peptide bond

formed by dehydration synthesis between NH2 of one amino acid to the cooh group of another

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n-terminal end

part of amino acid where nh2 is located

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c terminal end

part of amino acid chain when cooh is located

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polypetide

series of peptide bonds

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primary structure

particular and unique sequence of amino acids

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secondary structure

produced by twists and turns of the amino acid chain

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tertiary structure

folding of amino acid into 3d shape

44

quaternary structure

when polypetide chain is formed from more than one chain

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alpha helix

backbone is twisted into a right hand spiral
side groups extend from backbone
h bonds between atoms in backbone

46

beta sheet

chain zigzags in a flat plane
h bonds between adjacent strands stabilize sheet

47

random coil

irregularly folded arrangement
allows proteins to fold back on themselves

48

conformation

tertiary structure or its overall 3d shape

49

denaturation

unfolding a protein from its active conformation so that it loses structure and function

50

renaturation

opposite of denaturation

51

chaperone proteins/chaperonins

temporarily bind with newly synthesized proteins guiding them to the proper conformationa nd tertiary structure

52

conformation changes

undergoing limited alterations in 3d shape

53

domains

large structural subdivisions folding of the amino acid chain

54

motifs

highly specialized regions produced by 3d arrangement of amino acid chains within and between domain

55

dna

stores hereditary information responsible for inherited traits in all eukaryotes and prokaryoes and a large number of viruses

56

rna

hereditary molecule of a large group of viruses
carries instructions for assembling protein for dna to the sites where protein are made in the cell

57

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids consisting of:
pyrimides: one carbon nitrogen ring
purines: two nitrogen carbon rings
five carbon ring shaped sugar
one to three phosphate groups

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deoxyribose

5 carbon sugar to which a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group link covalently

59

ribose

5 carbon sugar to which the nitrogenous bases in nulceotides link covalently

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nucleoside

structure containing only a nitrogenous base and 5 carbon sugar

61

phosphodiester bond

bridging the phosphate group from 5 of one sugar with the 3 carbon of another

62

double helix

two nucleotide chains wrapped around each other in a spiral

63

template

nucleotide chain used in dna for the assembly of the complementary chain