Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Biology and Biotechnology > Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (34):
1

metabolism

biomedical modification and use of organic molecules and energy to support activities of life

2

kinetic energy

energy of motion

3

potential energy

energy an object has because of its location or chemical structure

4

1st law of thermo

energy cannot be created or destroyed

5

2nd law of thermo

enthropy is always increasing

6

spontaneous reactions

reactions that occur without putting in energy

7

enthalpy

potential energy in a system

8

exothermic

reaction that releases energy

9

endothermic

reaction that absorbs heat

10

free energy

portion of energy that is available to do work

11

exergonic reaction

releases free energy

12

endergonic reaction

requires free energy to work

13

catabolic pathway

energy is released by breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones

14

anabolic pathway

energy is used to create complicated molecules from smaller ones

15

energy coupling

process where atp is hydrolyzed, the terminal phosphate group is transferred to the reactant molecule

16

phosphorylation

addition of a phosphate group to a molecule

17

atp/adp cycle

continual hydrolysis and resynthesis of atp

18

activation energy

energy required to start a reaction

19

catalysis

chemical agent that accelerates the rate of a reaction

20

enzymes

most common biological catalysts

21

substrate

reactant that the enzyme acts on

22

enzyme specificity

an enzyme that can only work on a specific molecule

23

active site

small region where enzyme interacts with substrate

24

cofactor

nonprotein group that binds precisely to the enzyme for catalytic activity

25

coenzymes

other cofactors often derived from enzymes

26

saturated

when enzymes are cycling as fast as possible

27

competitive inhibition

inhibitor binds to an active site

28

noncompetitive inhibition

inhibitor binds to enzyme somewhere other than the active site

29

allosteric regulation

enzyme activity controlled by reversible binding of a regulary molecule to an allosteric site

30

allosteric site

location outside the active site

31

allosteric activator

increases enzyme activity

32

allosteric inhibitior

decreases enzyme activity

33

feedback inhibition

when products of reaction act as regulators

34

ribozymes

rna based catalysts