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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (38):
1

cell theory

all organisms are composed of cells
cell is basic structural and fundamental unit of all living organisms
cells arise only from the division of preexisting cells

2

resolution

minimum distance two points in the spectrum can be separated and still be seen as two points

3

plasma membrane

bilayer made of lipids with imbedded protein molecules

4

cytoplasm

all the parts of the cell between the plasma membrane and the central region

5

organelles

small organized structures important for cell function

6

cytosol

aqueous solution containing ions and various organic molecules

7

cytoskeleton

protein based framework of filamentous structures that help maintain proper cell shape and plays a key role in cell division

8

prokarytoes

dna is not separated from rest of cell

9

nucleoid

dna containing region for prokaryotes

10

eukaryotes

dna is separate from rest of cell

11

nucleus

dna containing region for eukaryotes

12

prokaryotic chromosome

single circular molecule that unfolds when released from the cell

13

prokaryotic cells

o Prokaryotic chromosome- single circular molecule that unfolds when released from the cell
o Ribosomes- small spherical particles in the cytoplasm that use info in mRNA to assemble amino acids into proteins
o Cell Wall- rigid external layer of material
o Glycocalyx- layer of polysaccharides that coat cell wall
 Slime Layer- when loosely associated with the cells
 Capsule- more firmly attached to cells
o Flagella- long thread-like protein fibers that move cell
o Bacterial flagella- helically shaped that rotate to move cell
o Pili- hair like shafts of protein

14

nuclear envelope

two membranes that separate the cytoplasm from the nucleus; reinformed by lamins

15

nuclear pore complex

large cylindrical structure formed of many proteins(nucleoporins) that exchange components between nucleus and cytoplasm

16

nuclear location signal

short amino acid sequence that distinguishes between proteins that need to be imported into the nucleus from those in the cytoplasm

17

nucleoplasm

liquid substance within nucleus

18

chromatin

combination of dna and proteins

19

nucleoli

irregular masses of small fibers and granules where rRNA genes become rRNA molecules

20

vesicles

small membrane bound compartments that transfer substances between parts of the system

21

endoplasmic reticulum

interconnected network of membrane channels and vesicles called cisternae

22

er lumen

enclosed space in endoplasmic reticulum

23

rough er

has ribosomes on outsides; proteins are folded into final form

24

smooth er

no ribosomes; synthesis of lipids that become part of cell membrane

25

golgi complex

stacks of flattened membraneous sacs known as cisternae
no ribosomes
cis-where proteins are modified
trans-sorted into veiscles that bud off
regulates movement of proteins
secretory vesicles- transport proteins to plasma membrane
exocytosis-when the vesicles release the proteins
endocytic vesicle-carry susbtances from plasma membrane to rest of cell

26

lysosomes

small membrane bound vesicles that are for the digestion of complex molecules
only in animals
formed by budding form golgi complex
enzymes made in rough er
acidic
phagocytosis-process where some cells enfulf bacteria or other debris to break them down

27

mitochondria

where cellular respiration occurs
require oxygen
outer mitochondrial membrane-smooth and covers the outside of the organelle
inner mitochondrial membrane- expanded by folds called cristae
mitochondrial matrix-innermost compartment of mitochondria
atp generating reaction occur in cristae and matrix

28

microbodies

small organelles found in various form in all eukarytoic cells
proteins and phosphoiipids are constantly transported into them
contain enzymes that conduct intermediate reactions linking major pathways
peroxisomes- microbodies that produce hydrogen peroxide
in plants convert oils or fats to sugars

29

cytoskeleton-microtubules

• Alpha tubulin and beta tubulin noncovalently bonded together
• Change length to fit function
• Cell center/centrosome- site near nucleus where microtubules radiate from
• Centrioles- short, barrel shaped structure at midpoint
• Provide anchor for some organelles and tracts for some vesicles

30

cytoskeleton-intermediate filaments

only found in multicellular organisms
provide strucutral support

31

cytoskeleton-microfilaments

structural and locomotor functions
actively flowing motion of cytoplasm

32

flagella

basal body-structure that anchors flagella and cilia to surface of cell
three types

33

plant cells-chloroplasts

 Collectively known as plastids
 Amyloplasts- colorless plastids that store starch
 Chromoplasts- responsible for colors of ripening fruits and autumn leaves
 Have an outer and inner boundary membrane
 Grana- thylakoids stacked on top of each other
 Stoma- inner compartment

34

plant cells-central vaculoues

pressure from it supports the cell
tonoplast-membrane that surrounds central vacuole
produce color of flowers

35

plant cells-cell walls

support and mantain pressure in cell
primary cell wall-soft and flexible
secondary cell wall-more rigid and thicker;reiforced with lingin
middle lamella-gel like polysaccarides that hold adjacent cells together
plasmodesmata-minute channels between two walls

36

animal cells-cell adhesion

bind cells together; helps maintain body form and structure; bind to specific molecules on other cells
connections are eventually made permanent by cell junction

37

animal cells-cell junctions

seals spaces between cells and provides communication between them
anchoring junctions-weld adjacent cells together
desosomes-intermediate filaments anchor the junction in the underlying cytoplasm
adherens junctions-uses microfilaments
 Tight junctions- regions of tight connections
• Formed by direct fusion of proteins on outer surfaces of membranes of adjacent cells
 Gap junctions- open direct channels to allow ions and small molecules to pass from one cell to another

38

extracellular matrix

provides cells and provides mechanical linkage