Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

Biology and Biotechnology > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (18):
1

direct contact

channels linking cytoplasm and exchange molecules and ions directly

2

local signaling

molecule diffuses into aqueous area around cells
local regulator-signal molecule
paracine regulation-acts on nearby cell
autocrine regulation-acts on cell that produces it

3

long distance signaling

release long term signaling molecule called hormone
enters circulatory system and then travels to target cells

4

reception

binding of signal molecule with specific receptor of target cells
nonpolar molecules receptors in cell
polar receptors are on plasma membrane

5

transduction

signal changes into a signaling cascade of reactions that cause cellular response

6

protein kinases

enzymes that transfer a phosphate group from atp to one or more sites on a protein

7

protein phosphatases

remove phosphate groups from target proteins

8

amplification

increase in the magnitude of each step as a signal transduction pathway proceeds

9

receptor tyrosine kinase

have own protein kinase activity on cytoplasm end of protein

10

g protein coupled receptors

respond to signal by activating an inner protein called a g protein

11

first messenger

extracellular signal molecule

12

effector

gtp bound subunit that breaks off and binds to a plasm membrane associated membrane associated enzyme

13

second messenger

nonprotein molecules

14

cyclic amp

small water soluble molecule derived from atp that activates protein kinases that add phosphate groups to target proteins

15

inositol triphosphate

small water soluble molecule that rapidly diffuses through cytoplasm
activated transport proteins in the er which release ca2+

16

diacylglycerol

hydrophobic so it remains and functions in the plasma membrane
with release of ca, activates protein that brings about cellular effects

17

steroid hormone receptors

control proteins that turn on specific gens when they are activated by binding a signal molecule

18

cross talk

interaction by which signal pathways communicate with one another to integrate their responses to cellular signals