Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (43):
1

plasma membrane

thin layer of lipids and proteins that separates the cell in its surroundings

2

bilayer

layer two molecules thick

3

cholesterol

predominant sterol in animal cells membranes

4

transport proteins

form channels that allow selected polar molecules and ions to pass through membrane

5

recognition proteins

identify a cell as part of the individual or foreign

6

receptor proteins

bind cells close together by recognizing and binding receptors or chemical groups on other cells or the ecm

7

glycolipids

lipid molecules with carbohydrate group attached

8

glycoproteins

carbohydrates being attached to protein in exterior facing lipid layer

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glycocalyx

surface coat on cell membrane made of glycolipids and glycoproteins

10

fluid mosaic model

membrane consists of fluid phospholipid bilayer where proteins are embedded and float freely

11

integral proteins

proteins embedded in phospholipid layer

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peripheral protenis

held to membrane by noncovalent bonds formed with polar parts of integral proteins or membrane lipids

13

freeze fracture technique

freezing a group of cells and then breaking the frozen piece to see the inside

14

transport

controlled movement of ions and molecules from one side of the membrane to another
passive-high to love
active-low to high

15

difficusion

net movement from high conc to low conc

16

concentration gradient

form of potential energy that drives diffusions

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selectively permeable

membranes that allow, impede, or block certain molecule and ions from crossing the membrane

18

simple diffusion

depends solely on molecular size and lipid solubility

19

facilitated diffusion

when proteins help polar and charged molecule cross membrane

20

channel proteins

form hydrphobic channels in membrane that allow water and ions to pass

21

aquaporins

allow water to pass through membrane

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gated channels

can switch between open, closed or intermediates

23

carrier proteins

bind to a specific solute and transport it across membrane

24

osmosis

passive transport of water

25

osmotic pressure

pressure created by the weight of the water of the raised solution balancing the tendency of the water molecules moving in

26

hypotonic

concentration of cell is higher than surroundings

27

turgor pressure

pressure pushes cells tightly against their walls to support soft tissue against gravity

28

hypertonic

concentration inside cell is lower than surroundings

29

plasmolysis

plant cells shrink and retract cell walls

30

isotonic

concentration inside and outside cell is equal

31

membrane potential

active transport of ions may result in a voltage being generated across membrane

32

primary active transport

protein that transports substance hydrolyzes atp to power itself

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secondary active transport

indirectly driven by atp hydrolysis

34

h+ pump

moves hydrogen atoms across membrane temporarily binding to phosphate group removed from atp during cycle

35

ca2+ pump

pushes calcium from cytoplasm to cell exterior and from cytosol to vesicles in er

36

sodium potassium pump

pumps out 3 sodiums and brings in 2 pottasiums created a potential

37

electrochemical gradient

electrical difference on two sides of membranes

38

symport co transport

solute moves through membrane channel in same direction as driving ion

39

antiport exchange diffusion

driving ion moves through membrane in one direction and another molecule moves in the other

40

bulk phase endocytosis

cell takes in small drop of outside fluid and any molecules with it

41

coated pit

depression in plasma membrane where receptor proteins go once bound to molecules

42

clathrin

network of proteins that coat and reinforce cytoplasmic side

43

phagocytosis

processes of a cell eating a molecule; engulf material and produce large endocytic vesicles