What is an Argument?
set of claims offering support for a further claim.
- Persons offers an argument: when trying to justify a claim by offering reasons for it.
- Arguments are not a dispute or a fight.
What is a premise?
supporting reasons for the argument. They should be acceptable and provide support for a further claim. Statements for providing further support than another statement is true.
What is a conclusion?
The claim that the argument is trying to prove. supported by premises.
not an argument. belief typically about a matter open to dispute, no proof on their opinions and lots of different ideas hold. Opinions aren’t fully backed up by evidence.
descriptions, stories, jokes, exclamations, questions and explanations.
(if / then statement)
Not an argument.
ex: if I eat this cake, then I’ll get fat.
ex: if the arctic ice melts, then the world we get flooded.
(most common non-argument)
attempting to show how it came to be that fact or event.
-explanation by purpose: offer an account of why something makes sense by relating it to human motives.
-explanation by meaning: when we explain the meaning of words.
ex: sibling means brother or sister = explanation.
Difference between Arguments and Explanations
- premises are meant to provide reasons to ‘justify’ the conclusion.
- a person argues to ‘demonstrate’ it should be accepted
- are offered to provide justification
- claims put forward to show how a phenomenon came to be
- someone tries to ‘explain why’ some claim is there
- are offered to provide understanding.
Premise indicator words
since, because, for, as indicated by, follows from, may be inferred from, may be derived form, on the grounds that, for the reason that, as shown by, given that, may be deduced from.
Conclusion indicator words
therefore, thus, so, consequently, hence, then, it follows that, it can be inferred that, in conclusion, accordingly, for this reason we can see that, on these grounds it is clear that, proves that, shows that, indicates that, we can conclude that, we can infer that, demonstrates that.
What is an Inference?
the process of reasoning from the premise to a conclusion based on the premise.
What is critical thinking?
The systematic evaluation or formulation of beliefs, or statements by rational standards. Questions the quality of your beliefs, requires logic, leads you to knowledge, which leads you to empowerment.