# Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

## Critical Thinking COPY > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (30)
1
Q

Deductive Entailment

A

e

2
Q

4 properties of Deductive Inference

A
1. Non-ampletive
2. All or nothing: All true premises and true conclusion (valid/cogent) or false
3. Truth Preserving: premises all true. conclusion 100% true
4. Erosion Proof:
3
Q

Categorical Syllogism

A

Deductive Argument: conclusion is inferred from two premises.

1. contains 3 terms
2. each term occurs in exactly 2 inferences
4
Q

Universal Affirmative

A

(A) All S are P

5
Q

Universal Negative

A

(E) No S are P

6
Q

Particular Affirmative

A

(I) Some S are P

7
Q

Particular Negative

A

(O) Some S are not P

8
Q

Square of Opposition

A

An arrangement of the 4 Categorical forms.

9
Q

A

(of a given statement)
All S is P(A) contradictory to Some S is not P(O)
No S is P(E) contradictory to Some S is P(I)

10
Q

Contrary

A

(A) contrary to (E) : can’t both be true, but can both be false

ex:
All flowers are blue = false
No flowers are blue = false

11
Q

sub-Contrary

A

(I) sub-contrary to (O) : can both be true but can’t both be false
Some flowers are blue = true
Some flowers are not blue = true

12
Q

Distributed

A

(A) subject term = distributed. Predicate term = not.
(E) BOTH subject term and Predicate term is distributed
(I) NEITHER S or P is distributed
(O) subject term = not. Predicate term = distributed.

13
Q

stereotyping

A

Problem with Universal Affirmative (A)

• putting them into categories and making universal judgments about all or most members of the category.
14
Q

Major term

A
```(predicate term)
Term that appears in the predicate position in the conclusion of the syllogism.
1. major term
2. minor term
3. conclusion```
15
Q

Minor term

A

(subject term)
Term that appears in the subject position in the conclusion of a syllogism
- 2nd premise

16
Q

Middle term

A

Term that occurs in both premises of the syllogism and not the conclusion.

• enables us to logically deduce the premise to the conclusion.
• MUST be distributed in at least ONE premise
17
Q

Fallacy of the undistributed middle

A

Fallacy committed when the middle term of the syllogism is not distributed in at least 1 premise.

18
Q

Mood of syllogism

A

The letters A E I O make the mood

ex: 1. No heroes are cowards
2. Some soldiers are cowards
3. Therefore, some soldiers are heroes

Mood: E I I

19
Q

4 figures

A

(1)M-P
S-M
therefore S-P

(2) P-M
S-M
Therefore S-P

(3) M-P
M-S
therefore S-P

(4) P-M
M-S
therefore S-P

20
Q

Rules for testing Deductive Validity in a Categorical Syllogism

A

Rule #1: For a syllogism to be valid, the middle term must be distributed in at least one premise

Rule #2: For a syllogism to be valid, no term can be distributed in the conclusion unless that term is also distributed in at least one premise

Rule #3: For a syllogism to be valid, at least one premise must be affirmative

Rule #4: For a syllogism to be valid, if it has a negative conclusion, it must have a negative premise. And if it has one negative premise, it must also have a negative conclusion.

Rule #5: If a syllogism has two universal premises, it cannot have a particular conclusion and be valid.

21
Q

Steps for the Categorical Syllogism

A
1. Put into form
2. identify major term, minor term and middle term
3. Identify if each line is A E I or O
4. Identify what’s distributed
5. Identify the mood
6. Apply the rules. Is it valid or nah?
22
Q

Laughter is the best medicine

A

form:

All things that are laughter are things that are the best medicine

23
Q

What is a deductively valid argument?

A

If the premises are true. The conclusion also must be true.

types:
- affirming the antecedent
- Denying the consequence
- Hypothetical syllogism
- Disjunctive syllogism

24
Q

What is a deductively invalid argument?

A

if the premises are true but the conclusion is false.

types:
- Denying the antecedent
- Affirming the consequence

25
Q

Affirming the antecedent

A
```(deductively valid argument)
(modus ponens)
1. if P, then Q
2. P
3. therefore, Q```
26
Q

Denying the consequence

A
```(deductively valid argument)
(modus tollens)
1. If P, then Q
2. not P
3. therefore, not Q```
27
Q

Hypothetical syllogism

A

(deductively valid argument)

28
Q

Disjunctive syllogism

A

(deductively valid argument)

1. Either P or Q
2. Not P
3. therefore Q.
29
Q

Denying the antecedent

A

(deductively invalid argument)

30
Q

affirming the consequence

A

(deductively invalid argument)