# Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

## Critical Thinking COPY > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (18)
1
Q

Can an Inductive inference be Deductively valid?

A

no. 4 properties are opposite to each other.

2
Q
1. Pigs are winged animals
2. All winged animals can fly
3. therefore, pigs can fly
A
1. unacceptable
2. unacceptable
3. conclusion is still inductively valid
3
Q

ARG conditions vs Inductive arguments

A

Always fails the A condition.

but satisfies the R condition.

4
Q

Inductive Reasoning

A

trend –> generalization.
Taking experience from the past and applying it to estimate the future. Don’t know 100% that it will be true.

ex: cereal was good on Tuesday, so it will be good tomorrow.

5
Q

Inductive Arguments

A

Arguments that provide probable support for the conclusion. Can’t 100% guarantee tho.
Different types: Inductive Generalization, Analogy, Inference to the Best Explanation(IBE)

6
Q

4 properties of Inductive Arguments

A
1. Ampliative: the conclusion may not contain everything that is said in the premises.
2. Non truth preserving: conclusion may be false if premises are all true.
3. Erodible by future evidence
4. They come in degrees of confidence: some premises support the conclusion more strongly then others.
7
Q

Inductive Generalization

A

(Inductive Argument)
uses evidence. uses a certain amount of things to make a claim about ALL or most things of that type.

ex: I’ve dated 5 men form Texas that wear cowboy hats. therefore, all men from Texas wear cowboy hats.

8
Q

Retrodiction

A

(Inductive Argument)
uses evidence from the present to make a claim about the past.
ex: We dug about dinosaur bones that are 65 million years old. Therefore, dinosaurs used to live on earth 65 million years ago.

9
Q

sample

A

a certain amount of participants who represent a broader group. less then 50 = weak. greater then 1000 = strong.

• has to be random sample
• has to be representative of broader group
• not biased sample
10
Q

Target population

A

using the number of samples we have to make a conclusion about the broader group (target population)
ex: We interviewed 50 uni students about their opinions on the quality of the food who represented the opinions of the whole university population.
50 = sample
university = target population.

11
Q

random sample

A

sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of participating. True random sample is hard to obtain. Race, gender, sexual orientation, rich/poor etc.

12
Q

Representatives

A

more crucial then sample size. Trying to accurately reflect the sample size to the broader target population.

13
Q

Stratified sampling

A

A sample selected in such a way that significant characteristics within the population are (approximately) proportionately represented within it.

14
Q

Guidelines for Evaluating Inductive Generalization

A
1. Determine sample size and target population. (if not stated, try best to guess relying on the context for cues)
2. if size is less then 50 = weak.
3. Reflect on variety of the population with regard to the property, x.
4. Is there sample bias?
5. samples based on volunteers, college students, pr persons of a single gender, race, or social class are NOT representative.
6. what’s the representative. If it’s a good reason = strong. if not = weak.
15
Q

Problems of Induction

A

Doesn’t provide same certainty as deductive reasoning. But can’t get by in life without inductive reasoning.

16
Q

What’s more crucial, Representativeness or sample size?

A

representativeness.

17
Q

Sample bias

A

A sample that misrepresents the target population.
ex: surveys about camping via e-mail.. e-mail you won’t get the true campers since they probably don’t like using technology.

18
Q

Hasty Generalization

A

(fallacy of false generalization)
Drawing a conclusion based on a whole group from a small sample.
ex: all 3 of my professors are bald, therefore, every professor is bald.