Causal Inductive Arguments
cause and effect.
the conclusion is a type of even that causes another.
ex: Exercising causes sweating.
Other causal claims words and expressions that are used
- C produced E
- C was responsible for E
- C brought about E
- C led to E
- C was a factor behind E
- C created E
- C influenced E
positive correlation and negative correlation. If you have one thing, you may also have another thing. BUT this one thing doesn’t cause the other thing..
ex: eating fatty food is correlated with bad teeth. Bad teeth is caused by eating fatty food.
Difference between causal and correlation
causation is NOT the same as correlation.
Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE)
hypothesis is inferred from some data(evidence) for the best explanation of that data.
with all the data(evidence) that there is. It is even possible that the conclusion is probable?
judged by common knowledge or scientific theory.
Ad hoc Hypothesis
is when you add another hypothesis into account only to save another hypothesis from counter evidence and having no independent claim to plausibility.
Can the conclusion be considered false? it’s cogent if it can be considered falsifiable.
ex: I plugged in the outlet for the toaster, then the toaster worked = not falsifiable.
ex: X doesn’t like his kids, wife beater, therefor, set house on fire = falsifiable. Not set in stone that he actually did it.
- does not mean that it’s false!!
explanatory power (of a hypothesis)
one hypothesis is more powerful then the other if it has more data(evidence) then the others.
Simplicity (of a hypothesis)
One hypothesis is simpler than another if it requires fewer supplementary assumptions and polite entries than the other.
- D exists
- H1 would explain D
- H1 is the best available explanation of D
- therefore, probably, H1 is true.
another name for IBE