# Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

## Critical Thinking COPY > Chapter 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (18)
1
Q

Similarity between Analogy Argument and Generalization Argument

A
1. Both forms of the argument begin with a sample
2. identify property of the members of that sample
3. and conclude that the property is also shared by one or more items outside the sample
2
Q

Difference between Analogy Argument and Generalization Argument

A

I.G.A: the target is a group of things..

A.A: the target is one single thing..

3
Q

Analogy

A

when you compare between 2 or more things.

used in explanations, illustrations or descriptions.

4
Q

Primary Subject

A

the topic that the conclusion is about.
main subject that it will be compared to.
ex: dogs are a lot like wolves.
dogs = primary subject.

5
Q

Analogue

A

the subject that the primary subject is being compared to.
ex: dogs are a lot like wolves
wolves = analogue.

6
Q

precedent

A

a relatively similar case that has already been resolved. Do you be consistent and treat each case the same? or differently?

7
Q

refutation by logical analogy

A

The refutation of one argument by the construction of another that is parallel to it in reasoning and is clearly flawed.

8
Q

a prirori analogy

A
• may be real or imaginary.

- there is an appeal to consistency.

9
Q

Inductive analogy

A

two or more things are similar in some respects and concludes that they are probably also similar in some further respect.

10
Q

Counter analogy

A

e

11
Q

Faulty analogy

A

(Fallacy)
(overall)
when the argument is so loose and remote that there is virtually no support for the conclusion.

12
Q

fallacy of two wrongs make a right

A

(Fallacy)
saying it’s correct because two wrong things are similar and one is tolerated, the other should be tolerated as well.
(misuses the appeal to consistency)
ex: we kill farm animals for food, so why can’t we kill cats and dogs for food.

13
Q

Fallacy of slippery precedent

A

(Fallacy)
argument based on saying that a certain action is bad (actually good) should not be permitted because it will set a precedent for further similar actions that are bad.

14
Q

Evaluating Inductive Analogy

A
• primary subject
• analogue
• identify similarities between primary subject and analogue
• are the premises acceptable?
1. truth:
2. Relevance:
3. Number of Similarities:
• assess the G condition
15
Q

difference between a priori and analogy

A

a priori: common in ethics, law and in matters of classification. can be real or imaginary. Consistency is important.
inductive analogy: common in history, medicine and science. Analogue can only be something that exists now or used to exist.

16
Q

Analogy form

A
1. a,b,c,d all have the attributes P and Q
2. a,b,c all have the attribute R
3. therefore, d probably has the attribute R
17
Q

principle of consistency

A

similar cases ought to be treated similarly.

18
Q

Analogy form

A

B is like A in many ways
A has property G
therefore, probably B has property G