What’s the difference between Straw man Fallacy and Red Herring.
a statement is positively relevant to the truth of another statement IF it would provide evidence to support the truth of the other statement.
a statement is negatively relevant to the truth of another statement IF it would provide the truth to be FALSE of that statement.
- if the first statement were true, it would count in favor of the second statement being false.
the statement is irrelevant if the statement don’t count in favor of the truth of the other statement. It is neither positive or negatively relevant.
The relevance of the premise contained in an argument to the conclusion of the argument.
The relevance of the argument to the context in which it is presented. addresses main topic which is being debated.
Relevance and the ARG condition
if irrelevant or negatively relevant = not cogent.
argument is made more orderly or logical by adding an extra premise.
original argument has fallacy of relevance.
new argument is usually still considered unacceptable.
Red Herring fallacy
a premise (remark) that is irrelevant to the conclusion. tends to distract people and lead them away from the main topic.
Another name for Red Herring Fallacy
Fallacious of relevance
are mistakes in argument involving irrelevance of one or more premise to the conclusion.
Straw man fallacy
a person misrepresents an argument by restating it with slightly different words. This new claim is easier to to refute, you then attack this new claim and present yourself as refuting the original claim.
Fallacy of Internal Relevance
Fallacy of reasoning
The Ad Hominem Fallacy
when the argument attacks certain characteristic qualities of a person. It’s irrelevant.
Guilt by association Fallacy
One may not believe a ceratain argument because the argument being discussed is discussed by a certain person or group which they do not like. The find the argument bad just because of the person presenting the argument.
Appeal to popularity fallacy
The argument is stating that something is right just because most people like it. It’s popular so everyone should like it.
Another 2 names for “Appeal to popularity fallacy”
- bandwagon fallacy
- ad populum
Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy
it asserts that the arguments conclusion is true because it has not yet be proven false.
ex: X is true, because it is not false.
The Burden of Proof
obligation or duty, to support one’s claims by argument and evidence.
appeal to authority
only believe is a certain claim because someone has claimed it being true.
ex: miley cyrus says weed is good for you. Therefore, weed is good for you.
X holds that A is true.
X is an authority on the subject.
The consensus of authorities agrees with X.
There is a presumption that A is true