Flashcards in chapter 1 Deck (35)
scientific study of behaviour/mental processes
goals of psychology
description, explanation, prediction, influence
general principle or set of principles. Organizes facts systematically. Can be proven
Seeks new knowledge. Explores advances general scientific understanding. Answers goals of theory
solving practical problems.Applying research to life
descriptive research methods
Case study method
observe/record behaviour in natural setting
no attempt to influence or control behaviour
more precise equipment to measure responses. Less spontaneity of behaviour
Case study method
interviews/observations. Can't establish cause of disorders. in depth study overtime
use interviews/questionnaire. Obtain specific information about groups.Show changes of attitudes/behaviours overtime.
personal characteristics can influence outcome. Subconsciously change answers. To avoid bias need outsider to conduct.
can't determine cause just relationship. useful in making predictions. establish relationship correlational between 2 characteristics.
indicates degree and direction of relationship between 2 variables.
+1.00 perfect + correlational
-1.00 perfect - correlational
anything less than 80 % not usually strong
stronger relationship = better prediction. correlational does not equal cause.
searching for cause. will give cause and effect. Test hypothesis (educated guess)
manipulated to determine if causing change in behaviour or condition
measured at end of experiment
varies at IV manipulated
participants exposed to IV
exposed to same environment as experimental group but not given IV treatments used for comparison
systematic differences among groups present at beginning of experiment. Solution random assignment (random participants assigned)
preconceived expectations influence participants behaviour or interpretation of results. Solution double blind ( unknown who is in treatment or control group)
response to treatment due to expectations rather than treatment. Inert substance (sugar pill, saline solution)
population = entire group of interest
sample = portion of population studied
rs = subgroups in same proportion as population
founder of psychology
Lab in Lipzeig Germany 1879
searching for structure of conscience experience
Edward bradford tichtener
introduced psychology to north america. came up with structuralism.
analyze basic structure of conscious mental experience
Strong impact from Charles Darwin's book (Origins of species by means of natural selection. Broadened scope of psychology to include study of behaviour and mental processes
Leader was Max Wertheimer. Introduced famous experiment of phi phenomenon. Influence the psychology of perception today.
observable/ measureable behaviour
environmental factors determine behvaiour
B.F skinner operant or deliberate conditioning criticism
ignores mental processes thoughts, feelings