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1

psychology

scientific study of behaviour/mental processes

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goals of psychology

description, explanation, prediction, influence

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theory

general principle or set of principles. Organizes facts systematically. Can be proven

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Basic research

Seeks new knowledge. Explores advances general scientific understanding. Answers goals of theory

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Applied research

solving practical problems.Applying research to life

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descriptive research methods

Naturalistic observation
laboratory observation
Case study method
survey research
correlational studies

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Naturalistic observation

observe/record behaviour in natural setting
no attempt to influence or control behaviour

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Laboratory observation

more precise equipment to measure responses. Less spontaneity of behaviour

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Case study method

interviews/observations. Can't establish cause of disorders. in depth study overtime

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survey research

use interviews/questionnaire. Obtain specific information about groups.Show changes of attitudes/behaviours overtime.

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interviews

personal characteristics can influence outcome. Subconsciously change answers. To avoid bias need outsider to conduct.

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correlational studies

can't determine cause just relationship. useful in making predictions. establish relationship correlational between 2 characteristics.

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correlational coefficient

indicates degree and direction of relationship between 2 variables.
+1.00 perfect + correlational
-1.00 perfect - correlational
anything less than 80 % not usually strong

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correlational predication

stronger relationship = better prediction. correlational does not equal cause.

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experimental method

searching for cause. will give cause and effect. Test hypothesis (educated guess)

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independent variable

manipulated to determine if causing change in behaviour or condition

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Dependent variable

measured at end of experiment
varies at IV manipulated

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experimental group

participants exposed to IV

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control group

exposed to same environment as experimental group but not given IV treatments used for comparison

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selectional bias

systematic differences among groups present at beginning of experiment. Solution random assignment (random participants assigned)

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experimenter bias

preconceived expectations influence participants behaviour or interpretation of results. Solution double blind ( unknown who is in treatment or control group)

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Placebo effect

response to treatment due to expectations rather than treatment. Inert substance (sugar pill, saline solution)

23

population
sample
representative sample

population = entire group of interest
sample = portion of population studied
rs = subgroups in same proportion as population

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founder of psychology

willhelm wundt
Lab in Lipzeig Germany 1879
searching for structure of conscience experience

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Edward bradford tichtener

introduced psychology to north america. came up with structuralism.

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Structuralism

analyze basic structure of conscious mental experience

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Functionalism

Strong impact from Charles Darwin's book (Origins of species by means of natural selection. Broadened scope of psychology to include study of behaviour and mental processes

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Gestalt Psychology

Leader was Max Wertheimer. Introduced famous experiment of phi phenomenon. Influence the psychology of perception today.

29

Behaviourism

John.B Watson
observable/ measureable behaviour
environmental factors determine behvaiour
B.F skinner operant or deliberate conditioning criticism
ignores mental processes thoughts, feelings

30

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud
unseen, unconscious, mental forces key to understanding human behaviour
psychoanalysis and iceberg theory
CONTROVERSY
emphasis on sexual and aggressive impulses