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1

Afferent neurons
(sensory)

relay messages from sense organs, receptors to brain or spinal cord

2

Efferent neurons
(motor)

signals from the brain, spinal cord to glands, muscles movement.

3

interneurons

thousand times more neurons than motor or sensory neurons
carry information
transmits between neurons in brain and neurons in spinal cord

4

3 parts of neuron

cell body: contains nucleus, carries out metabolic function
Dendrites: branch like extensions of neuron receive signal from other neurons
Axon: transmits signals to other parts of neurons and muscles, glands, other body parts

5

Glial cells

hold neurons together
remove dead neurons
make myelin

6

synaptic clefts

gaps between axon terminals
fluid filled

7

synapse

axon terminal of sending neuron communicates with receiving neuron across synaptic cleft

8

resting potential
(neural impulse)

neuron firing
inside axon normally more - than +
at rest neurons carry negative electrical potential

9

action potential
(neural impulse)

neuron is stimulated positive ions flow into axon
changes to positive value
sudden brief reversal

10

Myelin sheath

all or none law
white fatty coating around some axons
impulses up to 100 times faster along axons with myelin sheaths

11

receptor sites
(neurotransmitters)

sites on dendrite or cell body of neuron
interacts with neurotransmitters

12

Reuptake
(neurotransimtter)

Neurotransmitter taken from synaptic cleft into axon terminal

13

Acetylcholine (ACh)
(neurotransmitter)

Excitatory or inhibtory
excites skeletal muscle fibres

14

Dopamine (DA)
(monoamine transimtter)

ability to feel pleasure or fear
learning, attention, movement, reinforcement

15

Norepinephrine (NE)
(monoamine transmitter)

eating habits, alertness
involved in mood regulation

16

epinephrine ( adrenalin)
(monoamine transmitter)

completes NE
affects metabolism of glucose

17

Serotonin
(monoamine transmitter)

inhibitory
mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, appetite, depression, anxiety disorders

18

Glutamate (glutamic acid)
(Amino acid neurotransmitter)

excitatory
active in higher brain structures

19

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
(amino acid neurotransmitter)

inhibitory
widely distributed throughout CNS
controls anxiety in humans

20

Endorphins
(neurotransmitter)

opiate like substance
relief from pain or stress of vigorous exercise
produce feelings of pleasure and well-being

21

2 parts of nervous system

central nervous system (CNS)
brain
spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
connects CNS to all other parts of body

22

Spinal cord

extension of brain
links body with brain
transmits info from brain to PNS and PNS to brain

23

Brainstem

begins at site where spinal cord enlarges as it enters skull

24

Medulla

1 of 3 major structures
controls automatic function
ex. heart beat, breathing, blood pressure, coughing

25

Reticular formation

2 of 3 major structures
AKA Reticular activating system (RAS)
regulates arousal and attention
screens messages entering the brain

26

Pons (bridges)

3 of 3 major structures
connects left and right cerebellum
plays role in movement, sleep, dreaming

27

Cerebellum

means little cerebrum
contains 2 hemispheres
executes smooth, skilled body movement
regulates muscle tone and posture

28

Thalamus

relay station for info flowing into and out of higher brain centre
learn new and verbal info
regulates sleep cycle

29

Hypothalamus

regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behaviour, emotional behaviours
regulates body temp
regulates our biological clock

30

Amygdala

part of limbic system
associations between external events and emotions
learned fear responses
responds to aversive stimuli