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1

circadian rhythms

controlled by brain
within 24 hr period high to low points of bodily functions
ex. hormones
2-7 am alertness drops
2-5pm alertness drops
4-5am when body temp is the lowest
5-8 highest body temp 37

2

ultradian rhythm

biological patterns that occur more than once a day
ex. hunger, eye blinks

3

Infradian rhythm

exceeds 24 hr
ex. menstrual cycle

4

suprachiasmatic nucleus

tiny piece of brain in hypothalamus
acts as biological clock
acts on centre of brain by signalling pineal gland
affected by travel, alarm

5

Jet Lag

Biological clock synchronized with usual time, not new one
chronic jet lag can produce memory deficits

6

Shift Work

rotating shifts and irregular schedule most common

7

Subjective night

energy/ efficiency levels are low
biological clock says sleep
slower reaction time

8

NREM sleep

no rapid eye movement
quiet sleep
heart rate and respiration slow
little body movement

9

REM

rapid eye movement
active sleep
20-25% of adult sleep
intense brain activity and brain temp increases
large muscles become paralyzed
heart rate rises and respiration faster

10

Larks 25% of people

body temp rise 7:30 pm early to bed
more difficulty with night shifts

11

Owls 25% of people

Body temp rises gradually through the day drops late in evening

12

REM dreams

vivd dreams
continuous during each REM period
more emotional

13

NREM dreams

mental activity during NREM sleep
more thought like in quality

14

short sleepers

20% of population
less than 6 hours of sleep

15

long sleepers

10% of population
more than 9 hours of sleep

16

sleepwalking (somnambulism)

eyes open blank stare
shuffle poor coordination, speech is unintelligible

17

sleep terror

often begins with piercing scream
panic lasts 5-15min

18

Nightmares

frightening dreams during REM sleep
anxiety, fever, drug withdrawal

19

sleep talking (somniloquoy)

occurs during any sleep stage
more frequent in children
mumble no talking or responding

20

Narcolepsy

incurable sleep disorder
excessive daytime sleepiness
uncontrollable attacks of REM sleep

21

Sleep Apnea

sleep periods when breathing stops
individual must awaken briefly to breathe
alcohol and drug use aggreviate

22

Insomnia

difficulty falling and staying asleep
sleep is light, restless or poor quality
13.4% of canadians over age of 15

23

Meditation

focus attention on object breathing body movement to block out all distractions
altered state of consciousness
helps individuals with depression
yoga, zen, transcendent meditation

24

Hypnosis

trance like state of concentrated and focused attention
heightened suggestibility diminished response to external stimuli
suspend usual rational and logical ways of thinking

25

Psychoactive drugs

alter normal mental functioning mood, perception, and thought
some legal, most not
controlled substances used medically
trigger dopamine

26

drug dependence

physical drug dependence
compulsive pattern
user develops tolerance
unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

27

Drug tolerance

user progressively less affected
larger doses necessary to achieve some effect
larger doses necessary to maintain some effects 4 factors

28

stimulants (uppers)

speed up CNS
suppress appetite feel more awake
legal stimulations caffeine nicotine
controlled stimulants amphetamines
illegal stimulants cocaine

29

Amphetamines (stimulants)

increases arousal
relieves fatigue
suppress appetite
gives energy
more 100g gives bad effects
withdrawals exhausted depression hunger
overdoses hemorages

30

cocaine (stimulant)

from coca leaves
euphoria then crash
reward system don't function normally
withdrawal wanting to do more to feel pleasure
raises blood pressure