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1

sensation

senses detect visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli
transmits stimuli to brain

2

perception

sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by brain

3

absolute threshold

difference between not being able to perceive it and being able to perceive it
minimum amount of sensory stimulation detected 50% of the time
hearing music means the threshold has been crossed

4

difference threshold

measure of smallest increase/decrease in physical stimulus required to produce JND
JND (just noticeable difference) smallest change in sensation detected 50% of the time

5

Weber's law

Ernst Weber came up with this 150 years ago
States JND depends on percentage change in stimulus
Greater original stimulus more increase needed for JND

6

Signal detection theory

noticing stimulus against background noise and deciding if stimulus is really there

7

sensory receptors

detect, respond to one type of stimuli

8

Transduction

sensory receptors change sensory stimulation into neural impulses

9

Sensory adaption

become less sensitive to unchanging sensory stimulus over time

10

photons

tiny light particles that travel in waves
majority of these waves too long/short for animals/humans to see
our eyes respond to visible spectrum

11

Cornea

tough, transparent, protective layer covering front of eye, bends light rays inwards through pupil.

12

pupil

small dark opening in middle of eye

13

Iris

coloured part of eye
muscles dilate and contract pupil through reflex

14

Lens

lots of thin layers and it is clear disc
flattens while focusing on distant objects
bulges in centre while focusing on close objects

15

accommodation

flattening and bulging motion

16

Lens to retina

lens focuses images onto retina a thin membrane
contains sensory receptors for vision
image projected onto retina is upside down and reversed left to right

17

Nearsightedness (myopia)

distance through eyeball are too short or too long
see nearby objects clearly distant images blurry

18

Farsightedness (hyperopia)

focal image longer than eye can handle
acts as if image should focus behind retina
see distant objects clearly close objects blurry

19

Rods

light sensitive receptors in retina
responds to white and black
encode in shades of grey

20

cones

receptor cells in retina
help see colour and fine detail
don't function in very dim light

21

Fovea
(retina to brain)

small area of retina clearest point of vision
largest concentration of cones
change light rays into neural impulses
impulses transmitted to bipolar, amacrine, horizontal cells, then ganglion cells
ganglion cells bundle into cable leaving retinal wall on way to brain

22

blind spot

where cable runs through retinal wall

23

optic nerve

after cable leaves retinal wall

24

optic chiasm

optic nerves from both eyes come together, nerve fibres cross to opposite sides of brain
helps depth perception

25

feature detectors

certain neurons in brain
only responds to specific visual patterns lines or angles
coded at birth to make unique responses

26

hue

colour we see (red,blue,green)

27

saturation

purity of colour

28

brightness

intensity of light energy we perceive

29

Trichromatic theory

3 types of cones in retina
each type makes it maximum chemical responses to blue red green
theory consistent with what happens with cones

30

opponent-process theory

3 classes of cells
red/green yellow/blue black/white
increase/decrease firing rate when different colours are present