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1

classical conditioning

simplest form of learning
any event or object in environment to which an organism responds
ex. sound, light, touch

2

Ivon Pavlov

Russian institute 1891 to 1936
studied conditional reflex in clogs
involuntary response (salivation) association with sights , sounds of feeding

3

unconditioned reflex

involuntary response to stimulus
eye blink to air

4

neural stimulus

no response when presented to unconditioned response
automatic unlearned response made to conditioned stimulus, produced unlearned response

5

conditional response

learned response made to conditioned stimulus

6

extinction

weakening of learned response
eventual disappearance of learned response
CS repeatedly presented with at CS

7

Spontaneous recovery

something occurs after extinction
conditioned response reappear
occurs when conditioned stimulus

8

generalization

classical conditioning : conditional response to stimulus similar to that of

9

Discrimination

conditioned response
occurs to originally conditioned stimulus
learned ability to distinguish

10

Watson + Little Albert

1919 fear can be classically conditioned
conditioned baby albert to fear white rat
little albert learned to fear other white and furry things

11

Mary Cover Jones+ Peter

watson partner
removed fear from little albert

12

Contemporary views

cognitive perspective
Biological predisposition
fear response
drug use
advertising
sexual arousal

13

cognitive perspective

Does CS enable prediction of US

14

Biological predisposition

humans fear stimuli that can harm
survival response : taste aversion
degree to which genes prepare animals + humans to acquire or resist classically conditioned response

15

fear responses

fears and phobias largely result from classical conditioning

16

drug use

environmental cues associated with drug use can become CS
can produce CR of drug craving
need higher

17

drug use

environmental cues associated with drug use can become CS
can produce CR of drug craving
need higher dosages for effects cause build tolerance
cues initiating protective mechanisms not present when same doses are taken in unfamiliar places (leads to overdosing

18

Advertising

pair products with people and thing we like leads us to classical conditioning

19

Sexual Arousal

environmental cues (places, smells, clothing)
can become associated with experience
can have role in experiences

20

Shaping

reinforcement any movement towards desired response
skinner box ; cumulate recorder
shaping = rewarding successive approximative toward desired response

21

B.F skinner

box
everytime rats hit bar they got a treat

22

Superstitions behaviour

individual believes connection exists between act and consequences
no relationship between act and consequence
gambling,

23

Generalization

response made to reinforcer similar to one conditioning original response

24

Discrimination

learning to distinguish between stimulus reinforced and other similar stimuli
pigeon rewarded for pecking only yellow disk (discriminate stimulus)

25

reinforcement positive

pleasant or desireable

26

reinforcement consequences

increases probability of response to occur again if applied after response

27

reinforcement negative

behaviour likely to occur again because followed by ending aversive condition

28

Primary reinforces

fulfill physical need for survival
do not depend on learning
food water sleep sex

29

secondary reinforces

acquired or learned by association with other reinforcers money praise grades awards

30

continuous reinforcement

reinforce every correct response
most effective way to condition new responses