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Flashcards in chapter 7 Deck (69)
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1

Cognition

mental processes involved in acquiring storing retrieving and using info

2

imagery

represent picture a sensory experience in ones mind

3

concepts

label representing class or group of objects people or events sharing common characteristics or attributes

4

concept formation

from formal definition of concept
memorizing concepts common features
experiences with (+) and (-) instances of concept
through use of prototypes
through use of examples

5

prototype

example that embodies most common features of particular concept

6

examplar

individual instances of concept stored in memory from experience

7

systematic decision making

examining all possible alternating choosing more beneficial

8

elimination by aspects

eliminate by aspects that do not match each factor
choose remaining alternative

9

available heuristics

based on new situation resembling a familiar one

10

representative heuristics

based on new situation resembling familiar one

11

recognition heuristics

decisions terminate as soon as factor moving to decision recognized

12

framing

information emphasizes potential gain or loss

13

Intuition

gut feelings or instincts

14

anchoring

focusing on single factor magnifies importance of factor relevant to factors

15

trial + error

try one solution after another

16

analogy heuristic

comparing problem to others from past
working backwards (backwards search) start with problem solution and backward through problem

17

means end analysis

current position is compared with desired goal; close gap between 2 positions

18

algorithm

systematic step by step procedure guarantees solution to problem of certain type if executed properly

19

functional fixedness

failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems

20

mental set

mental rut in solving problems
continual using same old method even if another approach is better

21

creativity

produce original appropriate valuable ideas solutions to problem

22

divergent thinking

produce multiple ideas answers
solutions to problem
novel ideas involving combinations and synthesis

23

Language

thoughts feelings via system of social shared orbituary symbols of language translated into meaning

24

psycholinguistics

how language acquired produced, used
how sound and symbols of language translated into meaning

25

phonememes

smallest unit of sound

26

Morphememes

smallest unit of meaning

27

syntax

rules for arranging and combination words to form phrases and sentences

28

semantics

meaning derived from morphemes

29

words sentences

surface structure= literal words written spoken signed

30

deep structure

underlying meaning of sentence