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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Humans and the Microbial World Deck (84)
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1

The scientist usually considered the first to see microorganisms, which he called "animalcules", was


A. Redi

B. van Leeuwenhoek

C. Pasteur

D. Tyndall

B. van Leeunwenhoek

2

The word "Animalcule" was coined by

A. Pasteur.

B. van Leeuwenhoek.

C. Redi.

D. Tyndall.

B. van Leeuwenhoek.

3

The idea of Spontaneous Generation postulated that


A. organisms could evolve into the next generation of organisms.

B. organisms could spontaneously combust.

C. organisms could spontaneously arise from other living organisms.

D. living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.

D. living organisms could spontaneously arise from non-living material.

4

Which of these scientist(s) was/were involved in, among other things, investigating the idea of spontaneous generation?


A. Redi

B. van Leeuwenhoek

C. Pasteur

D. Escherich

E. Redi AND Pasteur

E. Redi AND Pasteur

5

The work of Tyndall and Cohn


A. supported the idea of spontaneous generation.

B. was used to explain why others investigating spontaneous generation had obtained results that were opposite of those obtained by Pasteur.

C. showed that microbes caused disease.

D. allowed scientists to see microorganisms.

B. was used to explain why others investigating spontaneous generation had obtained results that were opposite of those obtained by Pasteur.

6

The structures present in the hay infusions used in experiments on Spontaneous Generation that made them difficult to sterilize are


A. chlorophyll.

B. toxins.

C. organelles.

D. endospores.

D. endospores.

7

The opposite results obtained by scientists apparently doing the same experiments in investigating spontaneous generation


A. shows the importance of repeating experiments.

B. shows the importance of exactly duplicating experimental conditions.

C. led to further experiments that ultimately furthered knowledge.

D. All of the choices are correct.


D. All of the choices are correct.

8

If while investigating Spontaneous Generation, Pasteur had his laboratory located in a stable


A. the results would, most likely, have supported the idea of spontaneous generation.

B. the results would, most likely, have not supported the idea of spontaneous generation.

C. this would have had no effect on his results.

D. this would have shown his love of horses.

A. the results would, most likely, have supported the idea of spontaneous generation.

9

Cellulose is a major component of plants and is only directly digested by


A. herbivores.

B. carnivores.

C. termites.

D. microorganisms.

D. microorganisms.

10

Plants are dependent on microorganisms for


A. providing oxygen.

B. providing water.

C. changing atmospheric nitrogen to a usable form.

D. providing carbohydrates.

C. changing atmospheric nitrogen to a usable form.

11

Microorganisms are involved in


A. causing disease.

B. curing/treating disease.

C. preparing food.

D. cleaning up pollutants.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

12

Bacteria have been used to help produce or modify food products


A. for several thousand years.

B. since the middle ages.

C. since the late 1800s.

D. since the 1950s.

A. for several thousand years.

13

Microorganisms are involved in


A. production of medicinal products.

B. transforming atmospheric nitrogen to a form useful to plants.

C. food production.

D. pollution cleanup.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

14

Bioremediation refers to


A. rehabilitating wayward bacteria.

B. using bacteria to clean up pollutants.

C. vaccine development.

D. monitoring newly discovered disease organisms.

B. using bacteria to clean up pollutants.

15

The Golden Age of Medical Microbiology


A. occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s.

B. started in the 1990s with the advent of genetic engineering.

C. is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed.

D. was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.

E. occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s, is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed AND was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.

E. occurred during the late 1800s to early 1900s, is a time when the knowledge of and techniques to work with bacteria blossomed AND was when people realized that diseases could be caused by invisible agents.

16

Newly emerging or re-emerging diseases


A. may be due to changing lifestyles.

B. are exemplified by Lyme Disease and toxic shock syndrome.

C. may reflect a breakdown in sanitation/social order.

D. may be related to global cooling.

E. may be due to changing lifestyles, are exemplified by Lyme Disease and toxic shock syndrome AND may reflect a breakdown in sanitation/social order.

E. may be due to changing lifestyles, are exemplified by Lyme Disease and toxic shock syndrome AND may reflect a breakdown in sanitation/social order.

17

Lyme Disease is an example of a disease


A. that is due to a greater degree of interaction between humans and tick-carrying animals.

B. that is due to a decline in vaccinations.

C. that is due to a mutation in the human genome.

D. that is due to climate change leading to a greater mosquito population.

A. that is due to a greater degree of interaction between humans and tick-carrying animals.

18

The outbreak of measles within the last few years was due to


A. mutation of the virus.

B. change in the environment.

C. a decline in vaccination of children in the previous years.

D. increase in sensitivity of detection techniques.

C. a decline in vaccination of children in the previous years.

19

Smallpox


A. has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings.

B. still occasionally occurs in Third World Countries.

C. probably only had a human reservoir.

D. was dealt with by vaccination.

E. has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings, AND was dealt with by vaccination.

E. has been eliminated as a naturally occurring infection in human beings, AND was dealt with by vaccination.

20

Smallpox


A. aided European domination of New World Nations.

B. has not occurred naturally anywhere in the world since 1977.

C. has potential as a weapon of bioterrorism.

D. has killed millions of people.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

21

Diseases such as ulcers and cardiovascular disease


A. have been shown to be, or may be due to, a bacterial infection.

B. are solely due to lifestyle.

C. are solely due to genetics.

D. are due to new mutations in bacteria.

A. have been shown to be, or may be due to, a bacterial infection.

22

Bacteria are useful to study because


A. they produce protein in a similar manner to more complex organisms.

B. they replicate DNA in a similar manner to more complex organisms.

C. they produce energy in a similar manner to more complex organisms.

D. they are grown quickly, easily, and cheaply.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

23

Bacteria


A. are not found on our bodies.

B. are only found on small select parts of our bodies.

C. provide protection to us from disease by covering our bodies, crowding out 'bad' invading bacteria.

D. always cause disease when growing on our bodies.

C. provide protection to us from disease by covering our bodies, crowding out 'bad' invading bacteria.

24

Bacteria are present on the body


A. only during disease-causing infections.

B. constantly.

C. only in certain restricted areas.

D. never.

B. constantly.

25

Bacteria are good models to use because they


A. are large in size.

B. share many biochemical/physiological properties with more complicated organisms.

C. can be assembled into multicellular organisms.

D. have complicated growth requirements.

B. share many biochemical/physiological properties with more complicated organisms.

26

Which is usually true of Bacteria?


A. They are found as rods, spheres, or spirals.

B. They reproduce by binary fission.

C. They contain rigid cell walls made of peptidoglycan.

D. They are found as single cells.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

27

Which is usually true of Archaea?


A. They are found as rods, spheres, or spirals.

B. They reproduce by binary fission.

C. They contain rigid cell walls.

D. They are found as single cells.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

28

Which is not usually true of Archaea?


A. They are found as rods, spheres, or spirals.

B. They reproduce by binary fission.

C. They contain rigid cell walls.

D. They are found as single cells.

E. They contain peptidoglycan as part of their cell walls.

E. They contain peptidoglycan as part of their cell walls.

29

Some Archaea are commonly found in


A. meteors.

B. boiling hot springs.

C. the Great Salt Lake.

D. your refrigerator.

E. boiling hot springs AND the Great Salt Lake.

E. boiling hot springs AND the Great Salt Lake.

30

The cell types which lack a membrane bound nucleus are found in the


A. eukaryotes.

B. prokaryotes.

C. archaea.

D. protista.

E. prokaryotes AND archaea.

E. prokaryotes AND archaea.