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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (70):
1

The Rickettsial disease that killed Howard Ricketts and Stanislaus Prowazek was


A. louse-borne typhus.

B. tick-borne typhus.

C. yellow fever.

D. bubonic plague.

A. louse-borne typhus.

2

Which of the following is considered an important function of the skin?


A. hold muscle to bone

B. manufacture blood cells

C. produce antibodies

D. control body temperature

D. control body temperature

3

Which of the following is considered a function of the skin?


A. regulation of body temperature

B. prevention of fluid loss

C. synthesis of vitamin D

D. produces cytokines

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

4

The surface layer of the skin is the


A. cutaneous.

B. keratin.

C. dermis.

D. epidermis.

D. epidermis.

5

The oily secretion that lubricates the hair follicles of the skin is


A. sebum.

B. eczema.

C. suder.

D. acne.

A. sebum.

6

The secretions of the sweat and sebaceous glands provide ________ to the microbiota.


A. water

B. amino acids

C. lipids

D. All of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct.

7

The antimicrobial aspect(s) of the skin is/are


A. dryness.

B. saltiness.

C. acidity.

D. toxicity.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

8

Which of the following organisms is not normally found on the skin?


A. staphylococci

B. diptheroids

C. Candida spp.

D. Malassezia spp.

C. Candida spp.

9

Diphtheroids


A. are part of the normal flora of the skin.

B. are responsible for body odor.

C. include P. acnes.

D. include Malassezia spp.

E. are part of the normal flora of the skin, are responsible for body odor AND include P. acnes.

E. are part of the normal flora of the skin, are responsible for body odor AND include P. acnes.

10

Which of the following normal skin flora is a small yeast?


A. staphylococci

B. diphtheroids

C. Candida spp.

D. Malassezia spp.

D. Malassezia spp.

11

The growth of P. acnes within hair follicles, in many individuals, leads to


A. eczema.

B. carbuncles.

C. boils.

D. acne.

D. acne.

12

The principal species of Staphylococcus found on the skin is


A. aureus.

B. acnes.

C. pyogenes.

D. epidermidis.

D. epidermidis.

13

The bacteria that appear to maintain balance between the members of the normal flora and play a vital role in limiting colonization by pathogens are


A. staphylococci.

B. diptheroids.

C. Candida spp.

D. Malassezia spp.

A. staphylococci.

14

Which of the following may be added to normal media to make it more selective for staphylococci?


A. 7.5% salt

B. 0.5% HCl

C. 1.0% glucose

D. 5.0% mannose

A. 7.5% salt

15

The member of the normal flora sometimes considered responsible for tinea versicolor is


A. staphylococci.

B. diptheroids.

C. Candida spp.

D. Malassezia spp.

D. Malassezia spp.

16

Which is deemed the most serious staphylococcal skin infection?


A. tinea versicolor

B. folliculitis

C. furuncles

D. carbuncles

D. carbuncles

17

A protein associated with a more virulent form of Staphylococcus is


A. leukocidin.

B. mannose.

C. streptokinase.

D. coagulase.

D. coagulase.

18

The protein produced by S. aureus that interferes with phagocytosis is


A. protein M.

B. collagen.

C. protein A.

D. capsular protein.

C. protein A.

19

The preferred habitat of S. aureus is the


A. throat.

B. urethra.

C. bladder.

D. nasal chamber.

D. nasal chamber.

20

Which of the following is a fairly reliable method of characterizing strains of S. aureus?


A. complement fixation

B. protein fingerprint

C. genome typing

D. LPS pattern

C. genome typing

21

Which of the following may aid Staphylococcus in resisting phagocytosis?


A. leukocidin

B. hemolysin

C. granulation enzyme

D. coagulase

D. coagulase

22

Which of the following virulence factors used by Staphylococcus puts holes in host cells?


A. protein A

B. alpha toxin

C. leukocidin

D. clumping factor

B. alpha toxin

23

S. aureus clumping factor


A. causes fibrinogen to clump together.

B. causes bacteria to clump together in plasma.

C. reacts with prothrombin.

D. produces staphylothrombin.

B. causes bacteria to clump together in plasma.

24

Which is true of MRSA?


A. It stands for moxicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

B. They have R plasmids.

C. They may be sensitive to Synercid.

D. All MRSA strains remain sensitive to vancomycin.

E. They have R plasmids AND they may be sensitive to Synercid.

E. They have R plasmids AND they may be sensitive to Synercid.

25

Approximately 90% of S. aureus strains are resistant to


A. methicillin.

B. tetracyclin.

C. polymyxin B.

D. penicillin.

D. penicillin.

26

The S. aureus product that causes scalded skin syndrome is/are


A. exfoliation toxin.

B. lipases.

C. leukocidins.

D. protein M.

E. All of the choices are correct.

A. exfoliation toxin.

27

A frequent complication of scalded skin syndrome is a secondary infection caused by


A. M. luteus.

B. S. pyogenes.

C. S. epidermidis.

D. Pseudomonas spp.

D. Pseudomonas spp.

28

In addition to S. aureus, impetigo may also involve


A. M. luteus.

B. S. pyogenes.

C. S. epidermidis.

D. Pseudomonas spp.

B. S. pyogenes.

29

In S. pyogenes, which of the following interferes with phagocytosis?


A. M protein

B. protein A

C. collagen

D. pilin

A. M protein

30

In which of the following does a rash start on the palms and soles and progress toward the trunk?


A. Epidemic typhus

B. Typhoid

C. Lyme disease

D. Impetigo

E. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

E. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

31

The major vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the western U.S. is


A. Rickettsia rickettsi.

B. Rickettsia prowazeki.

C. Borrelia burgdorferi.

D. Dermacentor andersoni.

D. Dermacentor andersoni.

32

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an example of a(n)


A. animalosis.

B. tickonosis.

C. plantonosis.

D. zoonosis.

D. zoonosis.

33

After being bitten by an infected tick, transfer of the rickettsial organism occurs


A. immediately.

B. within 5 minutes.

C. within 20 minutes.

D. within 4-10 hours.

D. within 4-10 hours.

34

Which of the following is an obligate intracellular parasite?


A. M. luteus

B. S. pyogenes

C. Rickettsia rickettsi

D. Pseudomonas spp.

C. Rickettsia rickettsi

35

The causative agent of Lyme disease is


A. Rickettsia rickettsi.

B. Rickettsia prowazeki.

C. Borrelia burgdorferi.

D. Dermacentor andersoni.

C. Borrelia burgdorferi.

36

The unique characteristic of Lyme disease is


A. erythema migrans.

B. induration.

C. carbuncle.

D. furuncle.

A. erythema migrans.

37

The stage of Lyme disease that is characterized by arthritis is the


A. primary.

B. third.

C. second.

D. fourth.

B. third.

38

The most important vector of Lyme disease in the eastern U.S. is


A. Dermacentor virabilis.

B. Dermacentor andersoni.

C. Staphylococcus aureus.

D. Ixodes scapularis.

D. Ixodes scapularis.

39

Which of the following pertains to Borrelia burgdorferi?


A. coccus

B. bacillus

C. spirochete

D. filament

C. spirochete

40

The preferred host of Ixodes scapularis is the


A. wood rat.

B. white-footed mouse.

C. moose.

D. human.

B. white-footed mouse.

41

The growth stage of the vector that is mainly responsible for transmitting Lyme disease is the


A. nymph stage.

B. egg.

C. moulter.

D. adult.

A. nymph stage.

42

Many childhood diseases caused by viral infections of the upper respiratory tract can usually be diagnosed by


A. inspection of the rash.

B. the type of cough.

C. the type of fever.

D. the incubation period.

A. inspection of the rash.

43

A common viral rash of childhood with the popular name chicken pox is also known as


A. bariola.

B. rubella.

C. rubeola.

D. varicella.

D. varicella.

44

The varicella virus is a member of which virus family?


A. paramyxo

B. toga

C. papilloma

D. herpes

D. herpes

45

Reactivation of chickenpox is called


A. shingles.

B. herpes zoster.

C. pneumonia.

D. exanthems.

E. shingles AND herpes zoster.

E. shingles AND herpes zoster.

46

The childhood disease that damages the body defenses and is frequently complicated by secondary infections involving, primarily, Gram-positive cocci is


A. German measles.

B. measles.

C. mumps.

D. chickenpox.

B. measles.

47

The rubeola virus contains


A. double-stranded RNA.

B. single-stranded DNA.

C. multiple pieces of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA.

D. single-stranded RNA.

D. single-stranded RNA.

48

Rubella, rubeola and varicella-zoster are all only acquired via


A. the gastrointestinal route.

B. the respiratory route.

C. wounds.

D. blood transfusions.

B. the respiratory route.

49

An important diagnostic sign of measles is


A. Koplik's spots.

B. giant cells.

C. fever.

D. swollen lymph nodes.

A. Koplik's spots.

50

The MMR vaccine is used to protect against


A. mononucleosis, mange, rubeola.

B. measles, mange, rubeola.

C. mononucleosis, mumps, rubella.

D. measles, mumps, rubella.

D. measles, mumps, rubella.

51

The most serious consequence of rubella is


A. encephalitis.

B. meningitis.

C. deafness.

D. birth defects.

D. birth defects.

52

Rubella is a member of which virus family?


A. paramyxo virus

B. herpes

C. togavirus

D. papovavirus

C. togavirus

53

Warts are caused by


A. papillomavirus.

B. parvovirus.

C. papovavirus.

D. herpes virus.

A. papillomavirus.

54

The skin-invading molds belong to the genera


A. Epidermophyton.

B. Microsporum.

C. Trichophyton.

D. Ixodes.

E. Epidermophyton, Microsporum AND Trichophyton.

E. Epidermophyton, Microsporum AND Trichophyton.

55

Diphtheroids are responsible for body odor.

TRUE

56

Coagulase-positive S. aureus is often involved in disease.

TRUE

57

Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete with a number of axial filaments

TRUE

58

Varicella is a member of the herpes family of viruses and produces a latent infection.

TRUE

59

Humans are the only reservoir for varicella-zoster

TRUE

60

Complications of measles may include pneumonia and encephalitis

TRUE

61

Chickenpox and measles are both acquired by the respiratory route.

TRUE

62

The MMR vaccine is used to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella.

TRUE

63

Diseases caused by fungi are called mycoses

TRUE

64

The skin-invading molds are collectively called dermatophytes

TRUE

65

Would a person living in the tropics or in the desert have larger numbers of bacteria living on the surface of their skin, and why?


A. The tropics would provide more shade, so the surface of the skin wouldn't be exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. This would protect the bacteria on the skin, and they would have higher numbers due to this shading effect.

B. The very low humidity of the desert would lead to rapid evaporation of sweat and sebum from an individual's skin. Bacteria need these secretions for a nutrient source. Without them, bacteria would be found in much lower numbers on the skin of a person in the desert than the skin of the person in the tropics.

C. The constant secretion (and lack of evaporation) of high amounts of sweat would produce a highly salty environment on the skin of a person in the tropics. This would provide a local environment that would be too hostile for microbes to survive, so the number of microbes on the skin of the person in the tropics would be lower than that of the person in the desert.

D. The constant secretion of large amounts of sweat would wash bacteria off of the skin of the person in the tropics. As such, the person in the desert should have much more bacteria on their skin than the person in the tropics would.

B. The very low humidity of the desert would lead to rapid evaporation of sweat and sebum from an individual's skin. Bacteria need these secretions for a nutrient source. Without them, bacteria would be found in much lower numbers on the skin of a person in the desert than the skin of the person in the tropics.

66

The existence of extensive scalded skin syndrome does not indicate that Staphylococcus is growing in all the affected areas. Why not?


A. This condition is caused by an exotoxin produced by certain strains of this microbe, and NOT directly by the microbe itself.

B. This condition is caused by an endotoxin produced by certain strains of this microbe, and NOT directly by the microbe itself.

C. This condition isn't caused by Staphylococcus at all.

D. This microbe doesn't grow in the skin-but the toxins it releases are transported by the blood vessels into the skin, where it achieves the observed effect.

A. This condition is caused by an exotoxin produced by certain strains of this microbe, and NOT directly by the microbe itself.

67

Why is it a good idea to immunize little boys against rubella?


A. As this is a sexually-transmitted disease, vaccinating girls AND boys early in their lives prevents the spread of the disease in adulthood.

B. We want to achieve herd immunity, and there's no reason why only girls would be infected by this virus. By vaccinating the entire population, we achieve a higher degree of herd immunity than is possible by vaccinating only girls.

C. Only boys get this disease, and one of the common complications is sterility.

D. While this disease is quite strikingly symptomatic in girls, it is completely asymptomatic in boys. Boys can be carriers and transmit it easily to girls they are in close proximity to without realizing it through respiratory secretions. This can lead to large-scale and dangerous outbreaks in the female population.

B. We want to achieve herd immunity, and there's no reason why only girls would be infected by this virus. By vaccinating the entire population, we achieve a higher degree of herd immunity than is possible by vaccinating only girls.

68

What is the epidemiological significance of shingles?


A. It shows that, as a latent viral infection, there is always a possible reservoir available to reinfect new susceptible individuals.

B. It shows that we must always be vigilant against this deadly and highly infectious secondary infection in elderly and immunocompromised individuals.

C. It shows that, as a chronic viral infection, individuals infected are always infectious to others around them, even when they do not show outward symptoms.

D. It shows that our fight for long-term eradication of varicella zoster virus will be a very long fight, depending on immunizing all newly-born individuals until all the people that had ever contracted the illness have died.

E. It shows that, as a latent viral infection, there is always a possible reservoir available to reinfect new susceptible individuals AND it shows that our fight for long-term eradication of varicella zoster virus will be a very long fight, depending on immunizing all newly-born individuals until all the people that had ever contracted the illness have died.

E. It shows that, as a latent viral infection, there is always a possible reservoir available to reinfect new susceptible individuals AND it shows that our fight for long-term eradication of varicella zoster virus will be a very long fight, depending on immunizing all newly-born individuals until all the people that had ever contracted the illness have died.

69

A public health official was asked to speak about immunizations during a civic group luncheon. One parent asked if rubella was still a problem. In answering the question, the official cautioned women planning to have another child to have their present children immunized against rubella. Why did the official make this statement to the group?


A. Rubella is spread very easily by respiratory secretions and is largely asymptomatic. However, it can cause birth defects/stillbirth in pregnant women. Women with other children would want to prevent these children from acquiring the virus before attempting to conceive a new child in order to protect the fetus.

B. Rubella is passed very easily between children, so the official was trying to protect the child that would soon be born from this infection that might be brought in by its siblings after it was born.

C. The official is getting kickbacks and bribes from the companies making the vaccines, and he's trying to pad his pockets by getting as many people immunized as possible, regardless of whether they need it or not.

D. Rubella infections often lead to very serious and potentially fatal complications. While a woman is pregnant, she may not be able to take care of a sick child as easily. The vaccine will prevent the child already in the family from falling ill and potentially dying due to these possible complications.

A. Rubella is spread very easily by respiratory secretions and is largely asymptomatic. However, it can cause birth defects/stillbirth in pregnant women. Women with other children would want to prevent these children from acquiring the virus before attempting to conceive a new child in order to protect the fetus

70

When Lyme disease was first being investigated, the observation that frequently only 1 person in a household was infected was a clue leading to the discovery that the disease was spread by arthropod bites. Why was this so?


A. Mosquitoes (an example of arthropods) are never inside a house. They are strictly outdoor animals, so they couldn't spread the infection inside the household.

B. Mosquitoes (an example of arthropods) only bite once in their life cycle. As such, they can only transmit the illness once before they die. Even if an infected mosquito was inside a house, it could therefore only infect one human.

C. If the infection is spread by the bite of an arthropod, it wouldn't spread easily by respiratory secretions, direct contact, or sexual contact between individuals within the family.

D. Arthropods lose their mechanical ability to bite a human after a single bite, much like certain bees that lose their stinger after a single sting. This prevents them from transmitting the infection to more than one individual in a household.

C. If the infection is spread by the bite of an arthropod, it wouldn't spread easily by respiratory secretions, direct contact, or sexual contact between individuals within the family.