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1

One of the earliest researchers to explore the use of chemicals to kill microbial pathogens was


A. Koch.

B. Hooke.

C. Fleming.

D. Ehrlich.

D. Ehrlich

2

The arsenic compound that proved highly effective in treating syphilis was called


A. penicillin.

B. sulfa.

C. erythromycin.

D. Salvarsan.

D. Salvarsan.

3

The first example of an antimicrobial drug synthesized in the laboratory was


A. penicillin.

B. sulfa.

C. erythromycin.

D. Salvarsan.

D. Salvarsan.

4

Prontosil effectively acted on streptococci when the drug was split by enzymes to produce


A. penicillin.

B. sulfanilamide.

C. erythromycin.

D. Salvarsan.

B. sulfanilamide.

5

The use of Salvarsan and Prontosil to treat microbial infections were early examples of


A. antibiotics.

B. toxins.

C. inhibitors.

D. chemotherapy.

D. chemotherapy.

6

Penicillin was discovered by


A. Koch.

B. Hooke.

C. Fleming.

D. Ehrlich.

C. Fleming.

7

The most effective form of penicillin is


A. A.

B. B.

C. E.

D. G.

D. G.

8

One of the earliest antimicrobials isolated from a bacterium was


A. penicillin.

B. ampicillin.

C. Salvarsan.

D. streptomycin.

D. streptomycin

9

Which of the following groups of microorganisms produces antibiotics?


A. Penicillium

B. Streptomyces

C. Bacillus

D. All of the choices are correct.

E. Penicillium AND Streptomyces

D. All of the choices are correct.

10

An antibiotic made by microorganisms and modified by chemists is called


A. anti-metabolic.

B. catabolic.

C. synthetic.

D. semi-synthetic.

D. semi-synthetic.

11

The antimicrobials produced by some molds and bacteria are generally called


A. insecticides.

B. biocides.

C. antiseptics.

D. antibiotics.

D. antibiotics.

12

The toxicity of a given drug is expressed as the


A. selective toxicity.

B. biocide index.

C. biostatic index.

D. therapeutic index.

D. therapeutic index.

13

A high therapeutic index is


A. more toxic to the patient.

B. less toxic to the patient.

C. has no effect on the patient.

D. has no effect on the pathogen.

B. less toxic to the patient.

14

Drugs that are bacteriostatic


A. kill bacteria.

B. promote bacterial growth.

C. inactivate bacterial spores.

D. inhibit the growth of bacteria.

D. inhibit the growth of bacteria

15

Antimicrobials that kill microorganisms have the suffix


A. -cidal.

B. -static.

C. -anti.

D. -genic.

A. -cidal.

16

Antimicrobials that inhibit the growth of microorganisms have the suffix


A. -cidal.

B. -static.

C. -anti.

D. -genic.

B. -static.

17

Antibiotics that affect various strains of Gram-positive bacteria and various strains of Gram-negative bacteria are called


A. isolate usable.

B. stress-induced.

C. narrow-spectrum.

D. broad-spectrum.

D. broad-spectrum.

18

The rate of elimination of an antimicrobial is expressed as its


A. metabolic destructive rate.

B. half-life.

C. effective time.

D. dosage rate.

B. half-life.

19

Antibiotics that are most likely to disrupt the normal flora are termed


A. narrow-spectrum.

B. broad-spectrum.

C. targeted spectrum.

D. semi-synthetic.

B. broad-spectrum.

20

Drugs that are more effective when taken together are called


A. energetic.

B. antagonistic.

C. subtractive.

D. synergistic.

D. synergistic.

21

If drugs are less effective when taken together than when each is taken separately, they are called


A. energetic.

B. antagonistic.

C. additive.

D. synergistic.

B. antagonistic.

22

Antimicrobials may produce


A. allergic reactions.

B. toxic effects.

C. suppression of normal flora.

D. All of the choices are correct.

D. All of the choices are correct

23

Which of the following bacteria have an innate resistance to penicillin?


A. S. aureus

B. S. epidermidis

C. M. luteus

D. Mycoplasma

D. Mycoplasma

24

Which of the following drugs target peptidoglycan?


A. penicillin

B. cephalosporin

C. vancomycin

D. bacitracin

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

25

All members of the penicillin family have


A. beta-lactam rings.

B. alpha-lactam rings.

C. phenolic rings.

D. sulfanilic rings.

A. beta-lactam rings

26

Penicillin-binding proteins


A. primarily function in the cell to bind to beta-lactam drugs.

B. are enzymes.

C. are involved in cell wall synthesis.

D. inhibit non-growing bacteria.

E. are enzymes AND are involved in cell wall synthesis.

E. are enzymes AND are involved in cell wall synthesis.

27

Beta-lactamases


A. bind to penicillin-binding proteins.

B. bind to peptides.

C. prevent the linking of glycan chains in peptidoglycan.

D. break the beta-lactam ring.

D. break the beta-lactam ring

28

The major class(es) of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis is/are


A. aminoglycosides.

B. tetracyclines.

C. macrolides.

D. bacitracins.

E. aminoglycosides, tetracyclines AND macrolides.

E. aminoglycosides, tetracyclines AND macrolides.

29

Inhibitors of protein synthesis typically key on


A. peptidoglycan precursors.

B. penicillin-binding proteins.

C. ribosomes.

D. porin proteins.

C. ribosomes

30

Which is true of aminoglycosides?


A. They are bacteriostatic.

B. They irreversibly bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit.

C. They block peptidoglycan synthesis.

D. They are bactericidal.

E. They irreversibly bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit AND they are bactericidal.

E. They irreversibly bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit AND they are bactericidal.