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Flashcards in Chaper 19 (microbio) Deck (66):
1

Another name for childbed fever is


A. S. aureus intoxication.

B. toxic shock syndrome.

C. Klein's disease.

D. puerperal fever.

D. puerperal fever.

2

The doctor responsible for introducing the idea of hand washing before attending patients was


A. Klein.

B. Semmelweis.

C. Koch.

D. Pasteur.

B. Semmelweis.

3

Diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another are termed


A. symptomatic.

B. clinical.

C. acute.

D. latent.

E. communicable.

E. communicable

4

The natural habitat of a pathogen is referred to as its


A. home.

B. primary inhabitance.

C. infectious site.

D. reservoir.

D. reservoir.

5

The number of cases of a specific disease per one hundred people exposed is called the


A. morbidity rate.

B. index rate.

C. mortality rate.

D. obesity rate.

A. morbidity rate.

6

The fraction of a population who die from a specific disease is called


A. mortality rate.

B. morbidity rate.

C. attack rate.

D. incidence rate.

A. mortality rate.

7

Diseases constantly present in a population are called


A. epidemic.

B. chronic.

C. latent.

D. endemic.

D. endemic.

8

An epidemic that spreads worldwide is called a(n)


A. epidemical.

B. endemic.

`C. pandemic.

D. syndemic.

C. pandemic.

9

A cluster of cases in a specific population occurring in a brief period of time is called a(n)


A. endemic.

B. pandemic.

C. outbreak.

D. attack break.

C. outbreak

10

Apparently healthy people who may transmit a pathogen they harbor are called


A. vectors.

B. fomites.

C. vehicles.

D. carriers.

D. carriers.

11

Gonorrhea is a disease that may be


A. zoonotic.

B. pandemic.

C. syndemic.

D. asymptomatic.

D. asymptomatic.

12

A dramatic increase in the incidence of a specific disease in a given population is referred to as a(n)


A. pandemic.

B. endemic.

C. epidemic.

D. mortality.

C. epidemic.

13

Diseases that primarily exist in animals, but may be transmitted to humans are called


A. parasitic.

B. symbiotic.

C. zoonotic.

D. epidemic.

C. zoonotic.

14

The reservoir of infection for botulism and tetanus is


A. humans.

B. soil.

C. water.

D. animals.

E. soil AND water.

B. soil.

15

Which of the following is called a zoonotic disease?


A. measles

B. typhoid

C. common cold

D. plague

D. plague

16

Vertical transmission involves


A. droplet transmission.

B. fomites.

C. pasteurization.

D. pregnant woman to fetus.

D. pregnant woman to fetus.

17

The single most important measure to prevent the spread of disease is


A. home cooking.

B. canning.

C. pasteurization.

D. hand washing.

D. hand washing.

18

Inanimate objects capable of transferring infectious disease agents are


A. vectors.

B. fomites.

C. vehicles.

D. reservoirs.

B. fomites.

19

Large respiratory droplets typically travel no farther from point of release than


A. 3 meters.

B. 5 meters.

C. 1 meter.

D. 20 meters.

C. 1 meter.

20

Important sources of contamination in crowded locations are


A. blood.

B. droplets of saliva or mucus.

C. restrooms.

D. kitchens.

B. droplets of saliva or mucus

21

Droplet nuclei typically travel no farther from point of release than


A. 3 meters.

B. 5 meters.

C. 1 meter.

D. They are suspended indefinitely.

D. They are suspended indefinitely.

22

In order to prevent spread of microorganisms from the microbiology laboratory, the room air should be


A. under positive pressure.

B. under negative pressure.

C. filtered.

D. chilled.

E. under negative pressure AND filtered.

E. under negative pressure AND filtered.

23

Which of the following is not a vector?


A. fomite

B. human

C. fly

D. flea

E. fomite AND human

A. fomite

24

Which of the following is not a mechanical vector?


A. fomite

B. human

C. fly

D. flea

E. fomite AND human

A. fomite

25

The amount of infecting agent received by susceptible individuals is called the


A. exposure.

B. number.

C. dose.

D. level.

C. dose.

26

The period of time between exposure to an agent and the onset of disease signs and symptoms is called the


A. prodromal phase.

B. decline phase.

C. incubation period.

D. lag phase.

C. incubation period.

27

When an infectious disease cannot spread in a population because it lacks a significant number of susceptible hosts, the phenomenon is referred to as


A. protected population.

B. active immunity.

C. passive immunity.

D. herd immunity.

D. herd immunity.

28

The immunity of some black Africans to malaria is probably due to their


A. general health.

B. cultural practices.

C. age.

D. genetic background.

D. genetic background.

29

The type of epidemiological study that determines the characteristics of the persons involved and the time and place of the outbreak is called a(n)


A. inspection study.

B. descriptive study.

C. cohortive study.

D. retrospective study.

B. descriptive study

30

The first identified case in an outbreak is called the


A. starter case.

B. traceable case.

C. primary case.

D. index case.

D. index case

31

If the number of people who become ill during an epidemic rises and falls rapidly, this is called a(n)


A. propagated epidemic.

B. promulgated epidemic.

C. common source epidemic.

D. index epidemic.

C. common source epidemic.

32

If the number of people who become ill during an epidemic rises gradually, this is called a(n)


A. propagated epidemic.

B. promulgated epidemic.

C. common source epidemic.

D. index epidemic.

A. propagated epidemic

33

An experimental study in which neither the doctor nor the patient knows who is getting the actual treatment is called


A. single-sided.

B. double-sided.

C. double-blind.

D. double-barrier.

C. double-blind

34

Because of the natural evolution of microorganisms, it is necessary to use techniques that allow distinguishing them at the level of


A. species.

B. genera.

C. family.

D. strain.

D. strain.

35

The publication of the CDC that reports new cases of reportable infectious diseases is titled


A. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

B. State Health News Letter (SHNL).

C. Federal Report of Infectious Disease (FRID).

D. National Morbidity Weekly.

A. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

36

The World Health Organization (WHO) is part of the


A. Food and Drug Administration.

B. Department of Health and Human Services.

C. Department of Human Resources.

D. United Nations.

E. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

D. United Nations

37

WHO has targeted for elimination of


A. polio.

B. dracunculiasis.

C. measles.

D. plague.

E. polio, dracunculiasis AND measles.

E. polio, dracunculiasis AND measles.

38

So far, the only disease that has been globally eradicated is


A. polio

B. smallpox

C. measles

D. diphtheria

B. smallpox

39

A new serotype of Vibrio cholerae, V. cholerae 0139, has picked up the ability to produce


A. pili.

B. flagella.

C. capsules.

D. toxin.

C. capsules.

40

Schistosomiasis has increased in areas where


A. snails have become a delicacy.

B. crayfish are eaten.

C. dams have been built.

D. swamps have been drained.

C. dams have been built.

41

Approximately what percentage of hospitalized patients may develop a nosocomial infection?


A. 0%

B. 5%

C. 20%

D. 70%

B. 5%

42

An infection acquired during hospitalization is referred to as


A. antibiotic-induced.

B. therapeutic.

C. medication-stimulated.

D. nosocomial.

D. nosocomial.

43

Which of the following may be associated with nosocomial disease?


A. Enterococcus species.

B. Escherichia coli.

C. Pseudomonas species.

D. Staphylococcus aureus.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct

44

Which of the following contributes to nosocomial disease?


A. susceptible population

B. hospital environment

C. other patients

D. patient's own normal flora

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct

45

The member of the hospital staff who surveys the types and numbers of nosocomial infections is called the


A. head nurse.

B. staff control.

C. attending physician.

D. infection control practitioner.

D. infection control practitioner

46

The guidelines designed for prevention of nosocomial disease during care of all patients is called


A. Universal Disposables.

B. Disinfection Manifesto.

C. Asepsis Preference.

D. Standard Precautions.

D. Standard Precautions

47

Transmission-Based Precautions


A. is a course health workers must take.

B. are guidelines from WHO for dealing with emerging diseases.

C. are instructions on the care of all patients.

D. are guidelines to use with patients infected with a highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogen.

D. are guidelines to use with patients infected with a highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogen

48

Prevention of patient-to-personnel transmission of disease keys on limiting contact with


A. patients.

B. personnel.

C. administrators.

D. physicians.

E. body fluids.

E. body fluids

49

Which of the following is recommended by the Standard Precautions guidelines?


A. glove use

B. hand washing

C. a face shield

D. antibiotic use

E. glove use, hand washing AND a face shield

E. glove use, hand washing AND a face shield

50

The threat of bioterrorism


A. is due largely to the ease of spread and severity of diseases.

B. is exaggerated in light of the efficiency of our healthcare system.

C. may include rarely seen infectious agents.

D. has prompted WHO to prepare a readiness plan.

E. is due largely to the ease of spread and severity of diseases AND may include rarely seen infectious agents.

E. is due largely to the ease of spread and severity of diseases AND may include rarely seen infectious agents

51

Generally, the smaller the infective dose, the lower the chance of disease

FALSE

52

A fly may serve as a mechanical vector

TRUE

53

The portal of entry typically has little effect on the course of a disease

FALSE

54

The very young and the elderly are more susceptible to infectious disease

TRUE

55

Diseases with long incubation periods are more likely to spread extensively

TRUE

56

A gradual rise in numbers during an epidemic indicates a common source epidemic.

FALSE

57

Cross-sectional surveys are very useful in establishing cause of a disease

FALSE

58

A placebo is a mock drug.

TRUE

59

In a double-blind test the treating physician knows who is getting the actual treatment.

FALSE

60

Nosocomial infections are those acquired at a hospital.

TRUE

61

Human population growth and expansion contribute to emergence of diseases

TRUE

62

Explain the most likely reason why smallpox was successfully eradicated but rabies probably never will be.


A. Smallpox was ONLY found in humans; rabies is found in numerous animal reservoirs. We cannot reasonably eliminate rabies in all of the animal reservoirs that exist.

B. Smallpox was far easier to vaccine the world population against than rabies is due to the lower number of injections required-it becomes a compliance issue.

C. Since there are very few cases of rabies each year, there is little financial incentive to push health organizations to eradicate the illness through worldwide vaccination.

D. The symptoms of smallpox are easier to identify than the symptoms of rabies, so some carriers of rabies are not accurately diagnosed. This can lead to asymptomatic carriers present within the population of susceptible individuals, spreading the virus.

A. Smallpox was ONLY found in humans; rabies is found in numerous animal reservoirs. We cannot reasonably eliminate rabies in all of the animal reservoirs that exist.

63

Explain how the incubation period can influence the spread of an infectious agent.


A. An infectious carrier will only spread the illness when they are showing acute symptoms. As such, the length of incubation period is not important for spreading the illness.

B. Depending on the microbe and the illness, an asymptomatic carrier in the incubation period might be shedding infectious microbes to his/her surroundings. In such a case, a longer incubation period would lead to a greater spread of the disease as the carrier comes into contact with more individuals while he/she is generally appearing to be healthy.

C. A very short incubation period will place a patient into the highly infectious active disease state sooner. Since people avoid contact with actively ill individuals, a very short incubation period will always lead to a DECREASE in the spread of an infectious disease.

D. A very long incubation period will place a patient into the highly infectious active disease state later. Since people generally avoid contact with actively ill individuals, a very long incubation period will always lead to a DECREASE in the spread of an infectious disease.

B. Depending on the microbe and the illness, an asymptomatic carrier in the incubation period might be shedding infectious microbes to his/her surroundings. In such a case, a longer incubation period would lead to a greater spread of the disease as the carrier comes into contact with more individuals while he/she is generally appearing to be healthy.

64

Why is it important to include a placebo in a scientific study to assess the effectiveness of a drug?


A. It's actually unethical to do so-if you have a drug that you know to be effective, it's unethical to withhold that treatment from an ill patient.

B. A placebo-treated group will determine if the changes observed in the drug-treated illness group are due to a psychological effect rather than a physiologic/pharmacologic one.

C. It isn't scientifically important-a placebo simply helps investigators satisfy the legal requirements of the Food and Drug Administration in their testing process.

D. A placebo-treated group will determine if the changes observed in the illness in this non-treated group are due to a physiologic/pharmacologic effect rather than a psychological one.

B. A placebo-treated group will determine if the changes observed in the drug-treated illness group are due to a psychological effect rather than a physiologic/pharmacologic one

65

Which of the following is NOT a political/societal reason for a decrease in rates of childhood immunizations?


A. Distrust of the healthcare body administering the vaccinations.

B. Distrust of the government funding the vaccination process.

C. A lack of a proper 'cold chain' for stable transport of vaccines into tropical areas.

D. Distrust of the scientific community advocating for administration of vaccines.

C. A lack of a proper 'cold chain' for stable transport of vaccines into tropical areas.

66

The rate of nosocomial infections is often relatively high in emergency room settings. Explain the most likely reason why this might be so.


A. Often, the most acutely ill or most traumatically-injured individuals are found in emergency rooms. The combination of these two groups can lead to very easy spread of infectious agents into exposed tissues/organs of individuals in such physical locations.

B. Emergency rooms are inherently less sterile than other areas of hospitals due to the speed of the treatments. Speed becomes the desired trait over cleanliness during the response.

C. Emergency rooms are inherently less sterile than other areas of hospitals due to the large number of homeless people/drug addicts/prostitutes that seek treatment in these locations.

D. Patients brought into emergency rooms are often brought in by ambulances/EMTs. These individuals are less cautious with universal protocols for protection of both themselves and patients than physicians are.

A. Often, the most acutely ill or most traumatically-injured individuals are found in emergency rooms. The combination of these two groups can lead to very easy spread of infectious agents into exposed tissues/organs of individuals in such physical locations.