Chapter 3 MIcroscopy and Cell Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 MIcroscopy and Cell Structure Deck (93)
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1

Eukaryotic cells are


A. less complex than prokaryotic cells.

B. members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea.

C. defined by the presence of a membrane bound nucleus.

D. able to reproduce more rapidly than prokaryotes.

E. less complex than prokaryotic cells, members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea AND able to reproduce more rapidly than prokaryotes.

C. defined by the presence of a membrane bound nucleus.

2

The two magnifying lenses found in a light microscope are the


A. basic and transverse.

B. small and large.

C. ocular and objective.

D. simple and phase.

C. ocular and objective.

3

The resolving power of a microscope is described as the ability of the microscope to


A. separate clearly two objects that are very close together.

B. magnify an object.

C. separate the colors of an organism's internal structure.

D. see structures at various depths in a tissue.

A. separate clearly two objects that are very close together.

4

In viewing a microscopic specimen, oil is used to


A. increase the refraction.

B. decrease the refraction.

C. increase the reflection.

D. increase the resolution.

E. decrease the refraction AND increase the resolution.

E. decrease the refraction AND increase the resolution.

5

The use of oil with certain high power objective lenses increases


A. magnification.

B. the amount of light that enters the objective lens.

C. resolution.

D. contrast.

E. All of the choices are correct.

B. the amount of light that enters the objective lens.

6

If everything else is equal, the best way to observe more details in a microscopic specimen is to


A. increase resolution.

B. increase magnification.

A. increase resolution.

7

The microscope which allows the specimen to appear 3-dimensional is the


A. phase contrast microscope.

B. interference microscope.

C. fluorescence microscope.

D. dark-field microscope.

B. interference microscope.

8

Which of the following microscope types would be least useful in viewing unstained living cells?


A. phase contrast

B. interference

C. bright-field

D. dark-field

C. bright-field

9

Electron microscopes differ from light microscopes in that


A. electrons replace light.

B. electromagnets replace glass lenses.

C. resolution is higher.

D. magnification is higher.

E. All of the choices are correct.

E. All of the choices are correct.

10

Specimens can be observed at the atomic level using a(n)


A. scanning electron microscope.

B. transmission electron microscope.

C. atomic force microscope.

D. All of the choices are correct.

E. None of the choices is correct.

C. atomic force microscope.

11

Individual atoms on the surface of prepared samples can be observed by using the


A. phase contrast microscope.

B. scanning electron microscope.

C. dark-field microscope.

D. atomic force microscope.

D. atomic force microscope.

12

Basic dyes


A. have negative charges.

B. have positive charges.

C. are electrically neutral.

D. contain both positively and negatively charged particles.

B. have positive charges.

13

Which of the following stains is/are considered differential?


A. capsule stain.

B. flagella stain.

C. acid-fast stain.

D. Gram stain.

E. acid-fast stain AND Gram stain.

E. acid-fast stain AND Gram stain.

14

The Gram stain and the endospore stain both use


A. basic dyes.

B. acidic dyes.

C. safranin.

D. methylene blue.

E. basic dyes AND safranin.

E. basic dyes AND safranin

15

The order of reagents in the Gram stain reaction are


A. safranin, alcohol, methylene blue, iodine.

B. crystal violet, iodine, alcohol, safranin.

C. methylene blue, alcohol, safranin.

D. crystal violet, alcohol, iodine, safranin.

B. crystal violet, iodine, alcohol, safranin.

16

Which may result in Gram-positive bacteria appearing to be Gram-negative?


A. decolorizing too long

B. decolorizing too short

C. using old cultures

D. using young cultures

E. decolorizing too long AND using old cultures

E. decolorizing too long AND using old cultures

17

The major criteria used in placing bacteria into different groups is based on differences in


A. cell wall structure.

B. cell membrane permeability.

C. presence or absence of flagella.

D. detergent susceptibility.

A. cell wall structure.

18

In a basic staining procedure, which is the correct order?


A. fix, smear, stain

B. smear, fix, stain

C. fix, stain, decolorize

D. smear, decolorize, stain

B. smear, fix, stain

19

The acid-fast stain


A. reflects differences in cytoplasmic membrane structure.

B. is useful for distinguishing a small group of organisms, including Mycobacterium.

C. uses crystal violet and safranin.

D. uses carbolfuchsin and methylene blue.

E. is useful for distinguishing a small group of organisms, including Mycobacterium AND uses carbolfuchsin and methylene blue.

E. is useful for distinguishing a small group of organisms, including Mycobacterium AND uses carbolfuchsin and methylene blue.

20

Capsules


A. take up stain well.

B. may correlate with an organism's ability to cause disease.

C. are typically "negatively" stained.

D. are stained as a wet mount.

E. may correlate with an organism's ability to cause disease, are typically "negatively" stained AND are stained as a wet mount.

E. may correlate with an organism's ability to cause disease, are typically "negatively" stained AND are stained as a wet mount.

21

The endospore stain


A. is applicable to only a few groups of bacteria.

B. usually shows the spores as green structures among a background of pink cells.

C. uses crystal violet as the primary stain.

D. is an example of a negative stain.

E. is applicable to only a few groups of bacteria AND usually shows the spores as green structures among a background of pink cells.

E. is applicable to only a few groups of bacteria AND usually shows the spores as green structures among a background of pink cells.

22

Which fluorescent stain would be useful for distinguishing between dead and living bacteria?


A. acridine orange

B. auramine

C. rhodamine

D. CTC

D. CTC

23

Immunofluorescence


A. uses fluorescently tagged molecules.

B. makes use of the specificity in binding of antibodies.

C. utilizes acridine orange.

D. would require a special UV microscope.

E. uses fluorescently tagged molecules, makes use of the specificity in binding of antibodies AND would require a special UV microscope.

E. uses fluorescently tagged molecules, makes use of the specificity in binding of antibodies AND would require a special UV microscope.

24

Which term(s) refer(s) to bacterial morphology?


A. Bacillus

B. coccus

C. bacillus

D. polyhedral

E. coccus AND bacillus

E. coccus AND bacillus

25

Which is not true of the cytoplasmic membrane?


A. It defines the boundaries of the cell.

B. It is a semipermeable barrier.

C. It consists mainly of a fixed, static phospholipid bilayer.

D. It uses proteins as selective gates and sensors.

E. All of the choices are true.

C. It consists mainly of a fixed, static phospholipid bilayer.

26

Which is true of simple diffusion of water?


A. Water usually enters a cell and produces a tremendous osmotic pressure.

B. Water usually leaves the cell and produces negative osmotic pressure.

C. Water tends to enter and leave the cell equally, resulting in no pressure in the cell.

D. The diffusion ultimately relies on the selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane.

E. Water usually enters a cell and produces a tremendous osmotic pressure AND the diffusion ultimately relies on the selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane.

E. Water usually enters a cell and produces a tremendous osmotic pressure AND the diffusion ultimately relies on the selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane.

27

The cytoplasmic membrane of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes functions to


A. form endoplasmic reticulum.

B. produce energy.

C. regulate movement of molecules which enter and leave the cell.

D. form lysosomes and golgi apparatus.

C. regulate movement of molecules which enter and leave the cell.

28

The proteins of bacteria that are involved in the movement of small molecules into the cell, are called


A. transport proteins.

B. permeases.

C. carriers.

D. peptidases.

E. transport proteins, permeases AND carriers.

E. transport proteins, permeases AND carriers.

29

Most solutes pass through the cytoplasmic membrane via


A. osmosis.

B. diffusion.

C. transport proteins.

D. secretion.

C. transport proteins.

30

Facilitated diffusion and active transport


A. both transport molecules into or out of a cell.

B. are both not very specific as to which molecules are transported.

C. both require a concentration gradient to function.

D. both require an expenditure of energy in order to transport the molecules.

E. both require a concentration gradient to function AND both require an expenditure of energy in order to transport the molecules.

A. both transport molecules into or out of a cell.